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Art I


Balance principle of art concerned with equalizing visual forces
Symmetrical A special type of formal balance in which two halves of a balanced composition are identical, a mirror images of each other
Asymmetrical Another name for informal balance, in which unlike objects have equal visual weight or eye attractions
Form Objects having three dimensions. Like shape, a form has height and width, but also depth. Forms are geometric or free-form
Shape A two-dimensional area that is defined in some way. (2D) It is flat. Found in drawings or paintings
Line a element of art that is a path of a moving point. A dot that moves. There can be thick, thin, horizontal, or dotted ones
Color An element of art derived from reflected light
Value The element of art that describes the darkness or lightness range of an object
Negative Empty spaces surrounding shapes and forms. Or the empty space within an object. For example, the inside handle of a cup
Positive Shapes or forms in two-and three dimensional art. The actual shape itself.
Movement The principle of art used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewer’s eyes throughout the work of art
Texture Illusion of a three-dimensional surface based on the memory of how things feel. Rough vs. smooth
Variety Principle of art concerned with difference or contrast
Pattern A two-dimensional decorative visual repetition
Contrast Technique for creating a focal point by using differences in elements. (Very dark areas versus very light areas creates a difference of value)
Primary Colors Red, Blue, Yellow---The Main colors
Secondary Green, Violet, and orange—mix primary colors
Complementary Colors Colors across each other on the color wheel—Red/Green, Orange/Blue, Yellow, Violet
Warm Colors Colors that pull towards you. Red, yellow, or orange
Cool Colors Colors that push away from you. Blue, green, or violet
Intensity Saturation or strength of a color. The brightness or dullness of a hue.
Proportion Principle of art concerned with the size relationships of one part to another.
Perspective A graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a two-dimensional surface.
Contour A line that defines the edges and surface ridges of an object.
Medium material used to create a work of art.
Emphasis Principle of art that makes one part of a work dominant over other parts.
Media Plural of medium
Shading The use of light and dark lines to give a feeling of depth and texture.
Hatching and Cross-Hatching shading created using crisscrossing lines
Blending Technique Technique of shading through smooth, gradual application of tone.
Stippling Shading that creates dark values by means of a dot pattern.
Pigments finely ground, colored powders that form paint when mixed w/ liquid.
Binder A liquid the holds to together the grains of the pigment.
Solvent The liquid the controls the thickness or thinness of the paint.
Organic Shapes Shapes that are found in nature, free-form shapes. Usually more curvy. Think amoeba.
Geometric Shapes Found more in the math world. (Squares, Rectangles, cubes, cones, etc)
Arcade A series of arches supported by columns or piers, either attached to a wall or freestanding.
Balustrade A railing with supporting balusters (small closely spaced posts).
Blind arch An arch with no opening.
Cantilever A beam or other projection that is unsupported at one end.
Fanlight A semicircular window, usually located above a door.
Frieze The horizontal part of a classical entablature just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings.
Portico A roofed porch usually supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of the building.
Turret A small tower projected on a building.
Plasticity ability of clay to stretch.
Functional Pottery pottery that has a purpose. (i.e., cup holds water)
Non-Functional Pottery pottery that is made for artistic purposes.
Scoring to cut, scratch, or roughen up the surface of the clay usually in preparation for joining to pieces of clay using slip.
Impressing a decorative technique where hard objects are pressed into clay leaving an impression of the object.
Sculpture in the Round a sculpture that is interesting from all sides.
Blowout an explosion that occurs in the kiln when too much moisture, uneven moisture, or air has been trapped in the clay during firing.
Piercing A decorative technique in which areas of the clay are cut out leaving a design in the clay body.
Slab is a piece of clay that is flattened with a rolling pin, or thrown down at an angle of surface to flatten out.
Knead to work clay into a uniform mass with your hands.
Kiln a furnace for firing clay.
Bisqueware Ceramic work that has been fired once in preparation for glazing.
Coil long snake-like piece of clay. We used this technique to create pottery by rolling up coils
Slip Clay in liquid suspension. A very fluid mixture of clay and water sometimes with colored oxides added. It is used for decorating and joining pieces together.
Opaque Glaze Glaze that you cannot see through, completely covers the glaze area.
Transparent Glaze Glaze that you can see through after the application process.
Leatherhard term that describes clay that has dried to the limit of shrinkage but still has enough moisture to retain its original wet color. the clay body can be handled, trimmed, burnished, and carved without becoming misshapen, no longer in the plastic state.
Applique A form of decoration in which pieces of clay are fastened to the surface of a clay vessel by scoring & slipping. A technique common in material design especially quilting but also in metal work.
Bone Dry A condition of clay when the clay is very dry and brittle. A stage after leather hard when only chemical (H2O) water is left.
Incise Cutting, engraving, or carving into the clay body.
Mishima A method of decorating ceramics originating in Korea. Depressions are made in the clay by stamping or incising into plastic clay and filled with an engobe of contrasting colored slip.
Relief A decorative technique which carves away the negative spaces leaving the design in relief (raised) on the clay body.
Sgraffito A method of decorating (known in the past as graffito) in which a design in created by incising or cutting lines through one layer of colored slip before firing.
Wedge to prepare a lump of clay by alternately cutting and pounding it vigorously on a slab until it is in a homogeneous, plastic condition, free from air bubbles.
Created by: DFM