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Forage Crop Definitions

Allelopathy a plant resisting the establishment of another plant by releasing certain toxic chemicals
alternate row seeding a cultural practice for establishing two species of plants in separate alternating rows to avoid inter-species competition
animal unit 1000 lb. cow with a calf less than 4 months old
animal unit month the amount of forage required per month for a 1000 lb animal
bloat excessive accumulation of gases in the rumen when gas loss through the esophagus is impaired
boot stage the maturity stage of grass tillers when the inflorescence is in the sheath of the flag leaf or uppermost leaf
broadcast seeding the process of scattering seed on the soil surface before covering the seed with soil using artificial or natural means
bunchgrass a single plant turf reproducing by seed
caespitose all leaves originate from a common base- basal
catch crop an annual warm season crop planted in late spring the same year after a failure of an earlier planted crop, e.g. pinto beans after sugar beets
cereal forage annual grass species typically harvested for seed
chemical tillage using contact and/or residual chemicals for vegetation control rather than tillage
companion crop annual crop planted with a perennial forage crop for establishment
complementary pasture seeded pastures that can supply nutritious forage during times of the year when other forage resources are inadequate or unavailable. usually intensively managed pastures with 1-3 introduced species complementing the rangeland forage resource
conventional seedbed a well pulverized, firm, weed free surface in which to place a seed for a new crop to establish
corm solid, thickened underground stem
coumarin a white, crystalline compound with a vanilla-like odor that gives sweet clover its characteristic odor. used as a rodent poison and in medicine
cover crop annual crop planted to control erosion, suppress weeds, provide organic matter and a seedbed after it is harvested for grain or hat
crop rotation a system of growing different kinds of crops in recurrent secession on the same land
cultivar cultivated plant having proven performance
cultivation tillage is a mechanical method of weed control where a disk, harrow or rototiller is used to disturb or cultivate the soil, usually two to six inches deep
decumbent stems reclining on the ground with the end ascending
dehiscent opening by definite lines of weakness splitting the pod to discharge the seeds
dicoumarol chemical compound produced microbiologically from coumarin' found in spoiled sweet clover had
diluent dilution substance
dormancy a period of arrested growth and development caused by physical or physiological factors
dormant fall seeding seeding in late fall in cold soils where there is no chance of germination until the following spring
drill seeding planting seed directly into the soil with a drill, usually in rows 6 to 24 inches apart
economic/ecologic threshold a point which the cost and risk of a pesticide application out-weighs the economic crop loss if nothing was done
emergency forage during years of disaster where annual crops have typically been used in Montana as emergency forage
endophyte fungus that lives 100% in a plant
fescue foot vasoconstrictor condition of livestock extremities caused by an endophyte when fescues are grazed in ate fall or winter
fescue toxicity endophyte that kills rumen bacteria when fescues are grazed in spring and early summer
forage crop herbaceous plant fed to livestock
forage integration development of the most profitable combination of forage resources on a year round basis
forage quality ability of a forage to produce a desired effect on livestock
frost seeding seed is broadcast on the soil or drilled in late fall, winter, or early spring into a frozen seedbed when daytime temperatures are above freezing but at night time temperatures are below freezing
germination the initiation of growth by the embryo and development of a young plant from seed
grass tetany a metabolic Mg deficiency disorder of livestock, primarily ruminants, when grazing lush green grasses early in the spring
grazing readiness a point where a plant has grown in spring or recovered from a grazing event by regrowing beyond its minimum stubble height and can tolerate a grazing event without harm to its long-term survival
hard seed seed coat impermeable to water
harvest efficiency/ animal use factor amount of forage planned for removal by a grazing animal taking into account proper grazing use plus waste
hay forage preserved by field drying to moisture levels low enough to prevent microbial activity that leads to spoilage
haylage product resulting from ensiling forage with about 45% moisture in the absence of oxygen
in-determinant growth a continuous ripening of seed along with the initiation of new blossoms on the same plant
inert matter contaminant in a seed lot
inoculate introduction of pure or mixed futures of microorganisms into natural or artificial culture media via seed
integrated pest management using multiple tactics to manage pests
interseed planting the same or different crop within an existing crop
late summer seeding plantain crops in late summer for germination and establishment prior to frost
monoculture raising crops of a single species year after year on the same land
nitrate poisoning a serious condition resulting when an animal ingests a dies containing high nitrate concentrations
pasture land defined by a boundary fence and used for livestock grazing
pH the designation for the degree of acidity or alkalinity, hydrogen ion concentration
phenology the study of periodic biological phenomenon, such as flowering, seed set, as related to climate and season changed
PLS germination +hard seed x purity
poloxalene a surface-active agent that prevents the formation of float causing froth
preference a preferring or being preferred; greater liking
prostrate lying flat on the ground, if a stem then may or may not root at the nodes
prescribed grazing the management practice used on tame pastures to maintain healthy pasture plant communities and this maintain a healthy forage base, achieve acceptable livestock production, and protect natural resources
prussic acid poisoning hydrocyanic acid or cyanide poisoning, results when livestock consume plants containing cyanogenic glycosides from which HCN is released. usually found in sorghums
phytoremediation mitigation environmental problems with plants
regrowth growth that can occur from intact, active for growing points when defoliation occurs above the growing point, or it can originate from dormant buds
rhizobia nitrogen fixing bacteria found in nodules on roots of certain leguminous plants
rhizome any prostrate elongated stem growing partially or completely beneath the surface of the ground; usually rooting at the nodes and becoming up curved at apex
rosette a dense basal cluster of leaves arranged in circular fashion like the leaves of the common dandelion
saline soil soil containing enough soluble salts to interfere with normal plant growth, but not containing an excess of exchangeable sodium.
scarify scratching the seed coat to improve its permeability of moisture for germination
seed inoculation the addition of rhizobium bacteria to legume seed prior to planting. promotes nitrogen fixation
seed scarification the act of mechanically scarring the coat of hard of impenetrable seed to permit rapid water intake and speed germination
silage a forage preserved in a succulent condition by partial fermentation
sod bound excessive underground stems effecting production
sodic soil a soil containing sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with the growth of most plants, either with or without appreciable quantities of soluble salts
sprig a piece of a rhizome with a bud
stocking rate the relationship between the number of animals and the grazing management unit over a specified time period
stocking density the relationship between the number of animals and area of land at any given instant of time
stockpile harvesting 1-2 cuttings for hay and stockpiling the aftermath regrowth for late fall or winter grazing
stolon an above ground stem capable of rooting at its nodes and producing a new plant
stover mature, cured stalks of corn, sorghum, etc. from which the grain has been removed
stubble seedbed placing a seed by no-till planting into firm weed free surface residue of a prior crop
swath/windrow grazing the process of cutting hay, leaving it in windrows and allowing livestock to graze these windrows during the winter
symbiosis two kinds or organisms living together for their mutual benefit
tame psature cultivated fields planted to introduced grass and legume plant cultivars and used for grazing
thatch undecomposed plant residue
tiller branch or shoot originating at a basal node in grasses
vegetative stage maintain vegetative tillers v.s. reproductive tillers
vernalization cold, wet treatment of winter seeded cereals required for seed production
wolfy unpalatable bunchgrass with stiff old stems
Created by: Veronnaka