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Orthopedic Vocab

Common Orthopedic Injuries & Repairs

Surgical procedure that uses piece of bone to replace lost bone or to fuse two bones together Bone Graft
Scan using radioactive dye to visualize bones; effective for stress fractures and bone cancer Bone Scan
Repetive motion disorder caused by pressure on tendons and nerves Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Broken bone with no open skin wound Closed Fracture/Simple Fracture
Bone break where bone shatters into many small pieces Comminuted Frature
Broken bone with open skin wound Opened Fractue/Compound Fracture
Bone break causing height loss of vertebral body; may result from trauma, may occur in a bone weakened by osteoporosis Compression Fracture
Abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, Tendons, or connective tissue making it difficult to stretch muscle Contracture
Muscle enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle; elevated blood levels associated with heart attack, muscular dystrophy, and other skeletal muscle pathologies Creatine Kinase (CK)
Involuntary muscle contraction in response to striking muscle tendon with reflex hammer; test used to determine whether muscles respond properly. Deep Tenson Reflexes (DTR)
bones in joints are displaced from normal alignment and ends of bone are no loner in contact with eachother Dislocation
Test using low-dose x-ray beam to measure bone density; used to diagnose osteoporosis Dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA)
Chronic condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and fibrous soft tissue Fibromyalgia
process of stabilizing fractured bone while it heals; i.e. casts, splints, pins, rods, plates, screws, and wires Fixation
Broken Bone Fracture (FX, Fx/)
Fracture with incomplete break, one side of hte bone breaks and the other side only bends. Common in childern since their bones are so pliable. Greenstick Fracture
Protrusion of intervertebral disk between two vertebrae, puts pressure on spinal nerves. May require surgery Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)/herniated disk, ruptured disk
Fracture in which one bone fragmnet is pushed into another Impacted Fracture
Abnormal outward curvature of thoracic spine (Humpback/Hunchback) Kyphosis
Abnormal excessive anterior lumbar curvature of lumbar spine (Swayback) Lorosis
Abornmal lateral curvature of spine Scoliosis
Loss of muscle bulk due to muscle disease, nervous system disease, or lack of use. a.k.a muscle wasting Muscle Atrophy
Inherited disease involving progressive muscle degeneration, weakness, and atrophy. Muscular Dystophy (MD)
Bone break in which fracture line runs along an angle to shaft of the bone Oblique Fracture
Externally applied brace or split used to prevent or correct deformities Orthosis
Arthritis caused by loss of cartilage cushion covering bones in joint; result in bone rubbing against bone Osteoarthritis (OA)
Most common type of bone cancer; usually begins in osteocytes found at ends of bon. Most frequent in person 10-25 years old. Osteogenic Sarcoma
Broken bone caused by disease or weakened bone, not trauma Pathologic Frature
Use of a thin catheter tube inserted into intervertebral disk through skin to suck out pieces of herniated or ruptured disk; or laser is used to vaporized diak Percutaneous Diskectomy
Any artifical devise used as substitue for a body part that is either missing at birth or lost as a result of an accident or disease; example artifical leg Prosthesis
Diagnostic imaging procedure using x-rays to see internal structure of body ; especially useful for bones and joints. Radiography
Correcting fratured or dislocation by realigning bone. Reduction
chronic disorder with tendon, muscle, joint, and nerve damage casued by prolonged periods of pressure, vibration, or repetitive movemnets. Repetitive Motion Disorder
Swelling, stiffness, pain, and degeneration of cartilage in joints caused by chronic soft tissue inflammation; may result in crippling deformities. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contration Spasm
Birth Defect that occurs when vertebra fails to fully form around spinal cord; ranges from mild to severe; if spinala cordis damaged, paralysis results. Spina Bifida
Bone break in which fracture line spirals around shaft of the bone; caused by twisting injury; often slow to heal. Spiral Fracture
Ligament injury from overstretching, but without joint dislocation or bone frature Sprain
A slight bone break caused by repetitive low-impact forces, such as running, rather than a single forceful impact. Stress Frature
Surgical reconstruciton of hip joint with artifical hip joint. Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)
Surgical reconstruciton of knee joint with artifical knee joint. Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)
Bone break with frature line straight across shaft of bone. Transverse Fracture
Large group of drugs that provide mild pain relief and anti-inflammatory benefits for conditions such as arthritis Non-sterodial Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Created by: Wolkowski