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env geo exam 3

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the down-sloping movement of rock and soil under the influence of gravity mass wasting
driving force of mass wasting? gravity
straight down gravity normal force
shear force, tilted ground downslope force
friction usually, could be a planted rock resisting force
force created by attraction between sediment grains cohesion
angle of the steepest slope at which materials become unstable angle of repose
larger particles = higher angle of repose unconsolidated materials
what keeps the force of gravity from immediately flattening elevated portion of the earths surface? friction between sediments, presence of small amount of water, formation of natural cement locking sediment grains together, interlocking mineral crystal in rock
added mass, dissolved natural cements, "floats" sediments grains apart, lubricants clay-rich layers water in excess
earth materials, rock orientation, vegetation are factors that affect slope stability
what types of rock movement can occur from physical weather or erosion? falls, slides, flows
rock breaking off and falling, when rock hits and breaks it forms talus rock fall
rock slides, slumps (material curves as it goes down, oceans can cause) slides
avalanche, debris flows, earth flow, creeps flows
freezes, expands which moved upward, and when it thaws it drops downward a little further down the hill creep
earthquake, over-steeping of slope, removal of vegetation, introduction of water, ice wedging, biological activity causes of change in earths surface
prevention of rock slides? screen mesh, vegetation, retaining wall/steel fencing, responsible forestry, improved surface drainage
causes of subsidence? melting permafrost, fluid withdraw
2 types of sinkholes? solution, collapse
roof or top of cave falls in collapse sinkhole
carbonate rock gradually dissolves in naturally acidic water solution sinkhole
an area underlain with soluble limestone and riddled with caves, caverns, sinkholes, lakes and disappearing streams karst topography
what is the speed of a rock fall? extremely rapid
what is the speed of a rock slide? very slow to extremely rapid
what is the speed of a rock slump? extremely slow to moderate
what is the speed of a rock creep? extremely slow to slow
what is the speed of a avalanche? very rapid to extremely rapid
what are the causes of mass wasting? naturally, construction, removal of vegetation, intro of water, ice wedging, biological activity
river cutting into land mass wasting ? naturally
steep cuts or steep fill banks, cutting in or adding into a cut mass wasting? construction
deforestation accelerates weathering and erosion mass wasting? removal of vegetation
ways to prevent mass wasting? decrease driving forces, increase resisting forces, selective cutting, surface drainage, sub surface drainage
different kinds of subsidence? ground sinking, melting permafrost, fluid withdraw, mining, chemical weathering
layers of ground that are "permanently" frozen thaw out and create mushy hole under the surface and cause active layer to sink permafrost subsidence
rock that has been chemically weathered or dissolved karst topography
sinkhole that can get deep but takes a long time solution sinkhole
sinkhole underground water cave loses water and falls down collapse sinkhole
natural resources mined, products created and shipped to retailer, retailers sell to consumer, consumer throws away, trash linear lifecycle
designed to follow linear lifecycle and retire "throw-away" products
product made to be used and then thrown away for upgrade planned obsolescence
types of integrated waste management? reduce, reuse, recycle, energy recovery, dispose
economy in which there is zero waste due to the reuse or recycle of everything zero waste economy
creation of zero waste by reusing and recycling everything closed loop system
2 types of industrial ecology? zero waste and closed loop system
dissolved materials, minerals, and nutrients that seep down as water percolates through the landfill leachate
impermeable bottom with deep water table, no chance of leachate class 1 landfill
some possible leachate, possible high water table class 2 landfill
poor or no protection from leachate, may be former wetland, leachate enters groundwater easily class 3 landfill
gas produced from decomposing waste methane
burning of excess flammable gases such as methane in a controlled manner flares
monitoring of leachate and has levels to maintain a safety level declared by a state or gov. monitoring wells
keeps water out preventing leachate, keeps oxygen out capping
converts old landfill to pubic land for use of building of parks, schools, housing reclamation
burning at high heat to completely destroy trash incineration
waste created from nuclear activity such as a nuclear power plant, nuclear medicine, weapons radioactive material
radioactive material produced by nuclear power plants, medicine and weapons radioactive waste
items that have become contaminated with radioactive material low-level radioactive waste
highly radioactive materials produced as a byproduct of reactions that occur inside nuclear facilities high-level radioactive waste
residue remaining after the processing of natural ore to extract uranium and thorium uranium mill tailings
large particle, can be stopped by several sheets of paper alpha radiant energy
smaller particles, takes several mm of plastic to stop this particle beta radiant energy
very short wavelengths of radiation, takes several cm of lead to stop gamma radiant energy
revolving fund that pays for cleanup of worst hazardous waste areas, established by law in 1980 superfund
tank that stores material and partially breaks down solids and readies them for treatment septic
environmental absorption of organic materials coming from septic tank and effluent absorption of leachate leachfield/drainage
separates solides for disposal and chlorinate primary urban facility
extensive digestion of organic material and nutrients secondary urban facility
chemical treatment and chlorinate tertiary urban facility
used to treat water by natural processes use of wetlands
method of injecting hazardous material deep into earth deep injection wells
electronic waste, generally shipped overseas, years for decomposition, environmentally hazardous e-waste
equipment that yields more power from a given amount of energy efficiency energy resources
capture and use of waste heat released in industrial processes cogeneration energy resources
cannot be replaced, oil, natural gas, coal, radioactive material non-renewable energy resources
carbon rich remains of plant material preserved and altered by heat and pressure coal
2 things that can reduce emissions from coal burning plants from 98-99.9% scrubber and other filter devices
cheap, abundant domestic supplies, infrastructure in place, reduces air emissions, new research pros of clean coal
extraction process dirty and dangerous, strip mining, trace emissions, storage of CO2 emissions, raises price, unsustainable cons of clean coal
consists of hydrogen and carbon, petroleum (crude oil) hydrocarbon compounds
plankton and clay floating in water sinks and accumulates, more sediments accumulate over plankton layer, compress it, rich mud turns to clay to black shale, temp increases formation of oil and natural gases
fraction of large chemical aggregates in sedimentary organic matter that is insoluble in solvents karogens
organic material is chemically converted to oil and natural gas. permeable enough to allow the hydrocarbons to migrate upward source rock
oil and natural gas are trapped due to impermeable caprock reservoir rock
use of injections wells to recover oil that remains in reservoir rock, replacement of oil with water secondary recovery
tar sands and oil shale are types of ? extreme oil
combination of clay, sand, water and bitumen, heavy black viscous oil tar sands
(tight oil) sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, did not complete transformation to oil oil shale
how many tons of tar does it take to produce 1 barrel of oil? 2 tons of tar
infrastructure in place, used to create a variety or products pros of petroleum (crude oil)
extraction process can be complex/risky, oil spills and runoff, GHH emissions, unsustainable, less than 3% domestic reserves, peak-oil passed cons of petroleum (crude oil)
fewer harmful emissions than gas/diesel, domestic and commercial available, rise in natural gas reserves, infrastructure development can facilitate transition to fuel cell technology pros of natural gas
unsustainable, risks, degradation associated with extract and transport, storage, escapes during oil mining, hydraulic fracturing cons of natural gas
fuse of nuclei or atoms together, splitting of nucleus by neutron bombardment, releases neutrons and heat energy, uranium enrichment nuclear fission
free atmospheric pollution, generates more power than coal by weight/volume, less needs to be mined, safe for workers, breeder reactors, more power, less waste pros of nuclear power
potential for catastrophic accidents, safe disposal of radioactive waste, expensive, non renewable, danger of weapons, breeder reactors use liquid sodium raising risk of explosions, more expensive plutonium supply for weapons cons of nuclear power
can be replaced at a rate equal to or faster than they are consumed, solar, water, biomass, wind, total forces, geothermal renewable energy sources
directly captured from sun, photovoltaic (conversion of light to electricity), passive solar power, active solar power solar energy
energy that may require additional materials, technology and energy inputs active solar energy
energy that requires no mechanical power passive solar energy
renewable, no fuel or emissions, quiet, few moving parts, requires little maintenance, local decentralized power, reduced deforestation, sell, new jobs pros of solar energy
location must be sunny, expensive up-front, little economic incentive, pollutant byproduct in manufacturing, costs associated with tech development cons of solar energy
moderate to high net energy, high efficiency, moderate cost, cheap electricity, low env. impact, no CO2, easy to build, multiple land uses, can be put at sea pros of wind energy
need steady winds, need backup system, occupy large areas, visual pollution, noisy, danger to birds/bats cons of wind energy
renewable energy derived from organic materials, includes wood, biofuel, and methane gas from landfill, resist rural economies, low fuel cost pros of biomass
auto engine modifications, added maintenance, food resources used, unsustainable practice can offset benefits, monoculture issues, biofuels require energy, tech development costs cons of biomass
renewable, reduced emissions, used for heating, cooling, electricity, new tech. may make widely available pros of geothermal energy
not always sustainable, water can be corrosive, limited access with current tech. cons of geothermal energy
falling water turns turbine, requires construction of dams, 10% electricity in US hydroelectric power
ocean turns turbines to generate electricity, open ocean or estuaries tidal power
how much has average global temperature raised since 1980? about 1.4 degrees higher
forces which influence earths climate include: changes in solar output, volcanic eruptions, increase in GHG
changes in solar output, volcanic tectonics and milankovic cycles natural climate variation
shape of earths tilt and wobble milankovic cycle
contain foraminifera, coiling patterns that depend on water temp, initial drivers of climate shift, processes that change as a result of a change in forcing, cause additional climate change ocean sediment cores
melting ice, increase frequency of natural fires, increase ocean temp. decrease CO2 solubility positive feedback of ocean sediment cores
will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system continued emissions of GHG
expanding ocean water, melting alpine glaciers and small ice caps, causing portions of the coastal section of greenland and antarctica ice sheets to melt or slide into the ocean high temperatures that are expected to raise in sea level b/c of this
international agreement, set binding targets for developed nations to reduce GHG emissions kyoto protocol
goal is to create a framework for legally binding treaty that would follow up kyoto protocol copenhagen accord
non-binding agreement, lack of overall targets to curb GHG, launch new commitment period, further progress toward establishing financial and technical support to enable clean energy and sustainable growth in developing countries climate change conference
keep gov. on track, provide most vulnerable populations with better protection, cutting emissions from deforestation,further progress in help for developing nations warsaw climate change conference
Created by: KAzetapi