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Layers of the Retina, Photoreceptor Cells, etc

What are the 10 layers of the Retina? 1)Pigmented Epithelium; 2)Photoreceptor Layer; 3)External Limiting Membrane; 4)Outer Nuclear Layer; 5)Outer Plexiform Layer; 6)Inner Nuclear Layer 7)Inner Plexiform Layer; 8)Ganglion Cell Layer; 9)Nerve Fiber Layer; 10)Internal Limiting Membrane
The ______ is the nervous coat of the eye. retina
How many microns thick is the retina? 200 to 300
How many rods are in the retina? 111-130 million
How many cones are in the retina? 6.3-6.8 million
The fovea has a high concentration of...? cones
How many cones are in the fovea? 200,000
Each cone has its very own ____________ which helps give it really sharp vision. ganglion axon
Up to _____ rods can share the same ganglion axon. 10,000
The optic nerve is composed of ___ to ___ million ganglion cell axons. 1.1 to 1.3 million
The retina extends from the circular edge of the _________ to the _________. optic disc to the ora serata
The retina is the site of transformation of light energy into...? electrical impulses
What is the only light sensitive part of the eye? Retina
What type of cells are contained in the retina? photoreceptor; ganglion; bipolar; horizontal; amacrine; interplexiform; Muller
What is the process of converting light energy into a neural signal. phototransduction
Which layer of the retina is composed of outer and inner segments of the photoreceptor cells? Photoreceptor layer
What is the pigment contained in rods? Rhodopsin
What is rhodopsin made from? opsin and vitamin A
Which are more light sensitive rods or cones? Rods
Rhodoposin dissassociates when light is too ______? bright
Which photoreceptor cells are motion sensitive and responsible for peripheral vision? Rods
Which photorecptor cells give us our shades of grey? Rods
Are there more rods or cones? Rods
Which photorecptor cells are more concentrated toward the center of the retina? Cones
Which photoreceptor cells give us our acute vision? Cones
Which photoreceptor cells give us our color vision? Cones
What is the pigment in cones? iodopsin
What are the three types of cone cells? Red; Green; Blue
How long does it take to fully adapt to light? 5 minutes
How long does it take to become completely dark adapted? 45 minutes
____ are extremely sesitive in low light conditions. Rods
How many forms of Macular Degeneration are there? Two forms
Which form of macular degeneration is characterized by the presence of yellow deposits on the macula which causes the macula tissue to thin over time. Dry Form
Which form of macular degeneration is characterized by the growth of abnormal blood vessels from the choroid layer that go through to the macula? Wet form
Both forms of macular degeneration lead to the eventual loss of...? Central vision
Most patients have which form of macular degeneration? Dry
They eye can perceive up to ___ shades of grey. 500
What is the center of the macula lutea? Fovea Centralis
All the photoreceptor cells in the fovea are rods or cones? Cones
Where does the optic nerve exit they eye? Optic disc
There is a anatomical blind spot at the optic disc because there are no _____________ cells? photoreceptor
Retinal detachment is the separation between the retinal pigmented epithelium and the ______________? photoreceptors
During retinal detachment the photorecptor cells are separated from their...? blood supply
How is retinal detachment corrected? An argon laser is used to photocoagulate the edges of the detached retinal tissue back into position.
Retinal detachment results in...? scar tissue
Who is more likely to get a retinal detachment? People who are highly myopic (more than -6.00 Diopters)
Retinitis Pigmentosa is a _______ disorder. genetic
Does retinitis pigmentosa lead to a sudden vision loss or is it a progressive loss? Progressive
Retinitis pigmentosa is a gradual deterioration of what? photoreceptor cells
What is loss first in retinitis pigmentosa? Loss of night vision
In retinitis pigmentosa, after the loss of night vision, blind spots develop in the __________ vision. peripheral
Before leading to blindness, retintis pigmentosa leads to ______ vision. tunnel
What three factors affect color? Hue - color wavelength; Brightness - Intenstiy/luminostiy; and Saturation - How much white light is present and mixed with the color
Normal vision is ____________. trichromatic
What three colors make up normal vision? Red, Green, Blue
What is the most common type of color blindness? Dichromatic
If you have protonopia, what color does your vision lack? Red
If you have deuternopia, what color does your vision lack? Green
If you have tritanopia, what color does your vision lack? Blue
What type of color blindness uses all three colors but mixes them up? Anamolous trichromatic
What is monochromatic color blindness? Seeing no color at all, everything is seen as shades of grey
What are two ways to get color blindness? Inherited or from disease
Which parent is color blindness inhertited from? mother
What percent of males are color blind? 7-8%
What percent of females are color blind? less than 1%
What test is used for color blindness? Ishihara Color Test
When are the first hairs for the eyebrows formed? During embryonic development
What is another name for eyelids? Palpebrae
What are the functions of the eyelids? Cover the globe for protection; move tears towards drainage at medial canthus on closure; spread tear film;
Where are the structures that produce tears located? Eyelids
What is a droopy upper eyelid known as? PTOSIS
Where the upper and lower eyelids meet at the corner of the palpebral fissure is called the...? canthi
What is the caruncle? A small pink mass at the medial side
What are the eyelashes known as? Cilia
How many eyelashes are in the upper lid? 150
How many eyelashes are in the lower lid? 75
How often are eyelashes replaced? Once every five months
How long does it take for eyelashes to grow to full length? 10 weeks
Created by: griffiskr