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Environmental Test

Chapter 6 and 7

biome large region-characterized by a specific climate and certain types of plants and animals
terrestrial biomes major land biomes
climate determines the plant life found in a biome
temperature and precipitation two most important factors that determine a region's climate
latitude and elevation determines average temperature
tropical rain forest : Found near equator, large diversity of living organisms, large amount of rainfall, mild-hot temperatures, poor soil, habitat destruction
Temperate Deciduous Forest Found 30-50 degrees latitude, large amounts of rainfall, moderate temperatures, four distinct seasons
Taiga northern coniferous forest, long winters and short summers, found just below arctic circle, large amounts of precipitation,
Savanna Found in tropical and subtropical areas near equator, little precipitation, grasses/low shrubs and trees, wet and dry seasons, plants adapted to resist fire and drought
Grasslands dominated by grasses, hot summers and cold winters, moderate temperatures and rainfall, fertile soil, cleared for farming, found inland
Chaparral dominated by broad-leaf evergreen shrubs that are resistant to fire, found 30 degrees latitude and along the coast, moderate temperatures and little rain, human development
Deserts extreme temperatures and very little rain, plants adapted for drought-succulents like the cactus
Tundra dominated by grasses, lichens, and herbs; north of artic circle; beneath thin soil is permafrost, short summers, bogs and swamps; little precipitation which remains frozen, migratory animals; most fragile biome and oil extraction has threatened this biome
Salinity The type of organisms found in an aquatic ecosystem is determined by __________
parts per thousand What 0/00 stands for
35 The average salinity of the world's ocean
lakes, ponds, wetlands, groundwater Four examples of fresh water ecosystems
wetland A land area that is periodically underwater
temperature, sunlight, oxygen, and nutrients Four factors that determine which organisms live in which areas of water
To get sunlight Why do photosynthetic organisms live near the surface?
plankton organisms that float near the surface
nekton organisms that are free swimming
benthos organisms that are bottom dwelling
phytoplankton microscopic "plants"
zooplankton microscopic "animals"
Store oil and increase their surface area two ways that plankton stay near the water's surface
littoral zone in a lake that is a nutrient rich area near the shore where life is diverse and abundant
benthic zone that is at the bottom of the pond or lake and inhabited by decomposers
Eutrophication an increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem
Bacteria; oxygen ________ breaking down the excess biomass use up the _________ in the water
eutrophic lake lake or pond that has a larger amount of plant life due to nutrients
swamp flat, poorly drained land with woody plants and water loving trees
marsh occur on low, flat lands and have little to no water movement; nutrient rich
absorb pollutants that flow through them, control flooding, act as a nursery to fish and shellfish, trap carbon, buffer shoreline from erosion, recreational area six environmental functions of a wetland
southeast marshes are located mainly in the _________.
Florida Everglades The largest freshwater marsh in the US
freshwater water with little to nor salt
brackish water with a mix of salt and fresh water
salt water water with a high salinity
amphibians, reptiles and birds swamps are good environments for _________
draining, filling, and clearing for farms or residential and commercial development How humans are destroying wetlands
snowy melts in the mountains where rivers originate
gravity the driving force behind river currents
headwaters currents that are cold, oxygenated, and move quickly
mainstream currents that are broad, warm, slow, and have less oxygen
using water in manufacturing processes and as receptacles for waste; runoff two major environmental dangers to rivers
estuary area where freshwater from a river and salt water from an ocean mix
rivers and oceans estuaries are productive ecosystems because they receive nutrients from both _______ and _______
Salt water Which is more dense: salt or fresh water?
barrier island long, thin island that runs parallel to the shore
to protect the mainland and coastal wetland the main function of a barrier island
nursery for organisms and nutrient rich two benefits of an estuary
used as trash dumps, filled in to provide building space, and polluted three major dangers to estuaries
salt marshes are more temperate and predominately grass; mangrove forests are tropical and mainly covered with Mangrove trees The main differences between salt marshes and mangrove forests
photic zone, up to 100 meters deep where most of life is found in the world's oceans
coral polyps organism that creates a coral reef
clear and warm salt water where there is enough light for photosynthesis; shallow, tropical waters Where to find coal reefs
oil spills, sewage, pesticides, silt runoff, overfishing, ship anchors, and breaking off pieces environmental dangers to coral reefs
bleaching when corals expel symbiotic algae because of stress and they die
100 ft. how far light can penetrate into the ocean
marine snow dead, organic matter that sinks to the bottom and serves as a food source to benthic organisms
pollution and overfishing two major threats to the world's oceans
1% how much of the Earth's water is drinkable
Created by: aemiller