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Stack #138423

Terms related to History of the English Language

Unconditioned changes All occurrences of a specific sound regardless of its phonetic environment. This does not alter the number of phonemes is a language except when there is an unconditioned merger or a lost of phoneme. (blank)
merger In unconditioned changes, two phonemes merge to make up a single phoneme. Ancient Spanish distinction between B-v
Loss In unconditioned changes, one phoneme can be lost, altering the number of phonemes in a given language Lost of /h/ in Spanish
Conditioned changes A change in a specific sound depending of particular sounds neighbouring. (Pre-old English/k/=[k] in all positions.Had a fronted allophone when a front vowel followed. A slight palatization was exagerated to [t∫].) This sound did not exist/contrast with [k] until the first vowel of the diphthongs /ea/, /eo/ disappeared after [t∫] and it was no longer a predictable allophone of [k]: Chaff: /[keaff]/→/[t∫eaff]/→/[t∫aff]/
Loss of conditioning environment When the conditioning environment of an allophone is lost so the allophone becomes a new phoneme, or phonemic split See example of conditioned changes
phonemic split or split Two allophones split to form two phonemes, the result of the loss of conditioning environment. See example of conditioned changes
Paradigmatic change horizontal dimension that affects all the sound system of a language. Phonological systems show a strong preference for states of equilibrium if a language borrows /p/ it will not be balanced until it creates /b/.
Borrowing (phonetics) Factor that affects paradigmatic change. A language borrows a word with a phoneme that does not exist in that language, two things can happen: it will modify it to conform to its phonological structure (assimilate) or will integrate the new sound. Old English had plosives and affricates: /p,t,k,b,d,g,t∫,dʒ/. This system had voiceless fricatives /f, θ, s, ʃ , h/ but no voiced ones. In middle English, after Norman conquest, the adoption of French vocabulary lead to the addition of /v, ð,z, ʒ/
Syntagmatic change variation produced in the pronunciation of a specific word (blank)
Assimilation The development of two sounds that occur together be more similiar. This is due to anatomic reasons, less effort required. (blank)
Partial assimilation assimilation that takes place in the middle-way point convertir [kombertir]
Total assimilation two sounds become identical Latin [nokte]>[notte]
Assimitated sound two sounds become identical, the one that changes Latin [nokte]>[notte]
Influencing sound two sounds become identical, the one that produces de change Latin [nokte]>[notte]
Dissimilation two identical sounds become different. This can be due to the tongue twister effect. If two sounds are too similar they can produce difficulties in differentiating them, so they become different Dutch: clean [sxo:n]>[sko:n]
Lenition Affects only consonants, they can be stronger or weaker. Trask (1996) organised a scale of six developments from stronger to weaker: (blank)
Letinion 1. Degemination Geminate>simplex [cuppa]>[copa]
Lenition 2. Spirantization stop>fricative>approximant Latin [habebat]> Italian [aveva]
Lenition 3. t-tapping stop>liquid in American English city or metal
Lenition 4. Debuccalization oral stop>glottal stop British English wa[ʔ]er
Lenition 5. Nasalization Non-nasal>nasal Latin sabanu 'covering' > pre-Basque *zabanu > Basque zabau 'tablecloth'
Lenition 6. Voicing: Voiceless>voiced Latin strata> Italian strada (blank)
Fortition Strenghtening. Evolution of a consonant from right to left in his scale. (blank)
Fortition 1. Gemination Simplex>Geminate Latin aqua [akwa] > Italian acqua[akkwa].
Fortition 2. approximant>fricative>stop Old norse þar 'there' [θar] > Swedish där
Fortition 3. liquid>stop Pre-Basque *erur 'snow' > Western Basque edur
Fortition 4.Buccalization Glotal stop>oral stop No examples
Fortition 5. Denasalization nasal>non-nasal Basque musti 'moist' > busti
Fortition 6. Devoicing Voiced>voiceless Russian xl´eb 'bread' > xl´e[p]
Analogy / analogy maintenance Prevents the establishment of sound changes that respond to phonological rules. Sword: disappearance of [w] after [s] and before [o:]. But swore and swollen continue to have [w] by analogy maintenance since the present tense keeps it swear, swell.
Analogy Assimilation of an irregular form into a more regular pattern. They occur at all linguistic levels In middle English helpen belonged to strong verbs, preterit> holp, which not survived in modern English and for analogy with weak verbs we have helped.Lexical innovations not derived from loans, are derived by analogy. Adjectives ending in -able-ible. Or
Reanalogization An analogy that was lost, is restorted Latin felix : infelixacquired anomalous forms in Romance languages, but was restorted in the middle ages
Borrowing Assimilation of foreign vocabulary. Problem: cognates in different languages makes it hard to determine where the term was originated. Philologists look at the denotation of the words to determine if they are borrowed: terms that refer to everyday situati Problem. Are the following terms borrowed or derived from Indo-European: German gast 'guest', Latin hostis'enemy', Russian gost 'guest'. There are 3 possibilities.
Borrowing case 1. Term existed in parent language Indo-European *ghostis (* means not attested), but not found in other branches, could have been lost in them.
Borrowing case2. Term is an innovation, but can not be attributed to these 3 languages, would imply common ancestor for these 3 types of languages. (blank)
Borrowing case 3. Geographical and cultural contact. 1 and 3 are plausible, but not 2. (blank)
Inflection Interacts with syntax, the inflection of a word changes in relation to other words in sentence. When the inflectional system of a language is poor, it needs more words, word order and prepositions to reflect relations between words. The genitive possession marker is one the remains of inflection (Peter's dog) since it shows relation between words.
Derivation Creation of new words form others Drink- drinkable
Compounding Combination of two words to form a new term. They have a head and qualifier Screwdriver, perro-lobo
Conversion (zero-derivation) Moving a word from one lexical category to another with no modification to drink a drink
Clipping Reducing a word to a shorter form with no change in meaning. Abbreviation that has become conventionalized. influenza>flu, telephone>phone.
Blending Combination of compounding and clipping motor hotel > motel, heliport, Eurovision
Back-formation Borrowing a word with a suffix similar to that of the target language and then interpreting the first morpheme as noun or verb English: sing>singer where er= agent. Latin actor> English verb act
Reanalysis Similar to back-formation and analogy. bikini= bomb site, extreme bathsuit at the time had the same impact as the bomb. Later bi-kini vs. Monokini.
Folk etymology Speakers give a word whose structure is dark a more transparent meaning Zanahoria, adapted from Arabic, borrowed by Basque as zainhoria (yellow-root).
Initialism Reduction of a long phrase to few important letters, usually the first of each word. It is called initialism when the letters are pronounced one by one, but acronym when they are pronounced as a normal word BBC, FBI > initialism vs. Radar, nato > acronym
Reanalysis (morphology) Where there was a single morpheme, the speakers interpreted as two. It increases the derivational capacity of the language. bikini, hamburg (in hamburger)> monokini, cheeseburger
Metanalysis(morphology) Similar to realanalysis but the number of morphemes is not altered, just their form. The boundary is moved. French word for unicorn> une icorne > l'icorne > licorne. Two morphemes became one, contradicts definition
Analogy (morphology) Latin loans with irregular plural Latin cactus : cacti :: Greek octopus : ? (in Greek octopodes, but in English by analogy = octopi) (blank)
Stutervant's paradox (morphology) sound change is regular but produces irregularity; analogy is irregular but produces regularity. (blank)
Analogical levelling-levelling (morphology) Latin-Old French-Modern French ámo-aim-aime /ámas-aimes-aimes / ámat-aiment-aime /amámus-amons-aimons / amátis-amez-aimez /ámant-aiment-aiment.
Contamination (morphology) irregular change in the form of a word under the influence of another word with which it is associated in some way male : femelle > male : female
Hypercorrection motivated by intentional act by speakers, related to prestige In British English dart, court tend to imitate American > avorcado.
Grammaticalization The process whereby lexical items and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions. (Traugott, 1994) According to Traugott languages seem to evolve from free yuxtaposition to more complicated structures. This complexity They are a general nuisance (paratactic 1) in terms of (grammaticalized connector) they harass people trying to enjoy the park (paratactic 2).
Complex sentence A complex sentence consists of a nucleus and margins. (blank)
Nucleus The part of a complex sentence that can stand by itself and is not dependent (blank)
Margins The part of a complex sentence that is dependent on the nucleus. (blank)
Parataxis The component elements of a complex clause have the lowest level of dependence. They are a general nuisance (paratactic 1) in terms of (grammaticalized connector) they harass people trying to enjoy the park (paratactic 2).
Hypotaxis Higher level of dependence: the recruitment to connective function of deictics and other demonstratives. Deictics show the following path: 1. refer to the world (purely deictic), 2. used as anaphoric or cataphoric markers (cohesive function) , 3. used to while: 1. distal demonstrative in accusative b/pa, + accusative of noun hwile 'time' + invariant subordinator b/pe. This last element is an explicit coding of sumultaneity. 2. Whole expresión reduced to conjunction wile. With time, the conjunction not onl
Subordination The highest degree of dependence. The margin is completely in one of the constituents of the nucleus. I saw that. He was asleep (original construction) > I saw that he was asleep
Semantization The process by which a word acquires connotations not present in its original meaning. While: simultaneity>causality (in German); since: siđ (time and journey) occured in combination with the dative form of þæt (12th century). In late Old English they contracted to form siđđan as an adverb meaning afterwards, also as conjunction from the ti
Semantic specialization A word acquires more specific connotation starve steorfan in Old English (to die) > starve (to die of hunger)
Reinterpretation of a non-finite verbal form Gives rise to a new tense. Auxiliary "have". First in Romance languages and then in the Germanic ones. Lost of semantic meaning of habeo "to have" to give rise to auxiliary "have" which indicates person, number and tense, but not case.
Created by: jasan1975