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Where are electrons located in an atom? The electron shells.
Where are electrons located in an atom? The electron shells.
What do the number of protons determine in an atom? The atomic number.
How many electrons are in the electron shells in the Bohr-Rutherford model? 2,8,8
What do you add together to get the mass number? The number of protons and neutrons.
What is the mass of an element measured in? Atomic mass units (u)
What are isotopes? Two forms of the same atom but with a different mass.
Why do isotopes of an atom have different masses? Because they have a different number of neutrons.
Why is the mass of an atom on the periodic table generally a decimal number and not a whole number? Because it is an average of the isotopes of that element.
What are ions? Atoms with a positive or negative charge due to the gain or loss of electrons.
What are the subatomic particles responsible for chemical changes or changes in charge?Why? Electrons because they are very busy and like to jump around.
What does stable octet mean? That the atoms outer shell is full.(has 8 electrons)
What group are alkali metals? group 1
How many electrons do alkali metals have on their outer shell? One
Why are alkali metals so reactive? Because they only have one electron on their outer shell so it is not stable and often tries to leave.
What group are alkaline earth metals? group 2
How many electrons do alkaline earth metals have on their outer shell? Two
What group are noble gases? group 18
How many electrons do noble gases have on their outer shell? Eight
Why are noble gases a stable octet and unreactive? Because their electron shell is full causes them to be stable.
What group are halogens? group 17
How many electrons do the halogens have on their outer shell? Seven
Why are halogens reactive? Because they have seven electrons on their outer shell so they are always looking to gain one to create a stable octet.
Why is the outer shell of electrons the most important for determining chemical properties? Because they are the ones that transfer from element to element.
Why are alkali metals and halogens so reactive with each other? Because halogens are always looking to gain the electron from the alkali metals to create a stable octet.
What is another name for static electricity? Electrostatics.
Does rubbing materials together create electric charges? No, the charges are already there, they just move when they are rubbed together.
What is the law of electric charges? Like charges repel and unlike charges attract.
What are insulators? Materials that hold onto their electrons very tightly.
What are conductors? Materials that have a loose hold on their electrons.
What are three ways to charge an object? Friction, Contact, Induction
What is an electroscope? A device that can detect the presence of a charge?
Do the leaves of an electroscope always spread apart if a charged object come in contact with it? Yes.
What is a spark? An electirc discharge caused by electrons jumping from one conductor to another through the air.
What does grounding an object mean? When the object is sent through conducting material directly to the ground.
What are three comercial uses of static electricity? A photocopier, an electrostatic precipitator, and an electrostatic spray painting device.
What are similarities between a spark and a lightning bolt? They are both flashes of light that are caused by electrons jumping through the air and colliding with other molecules.
What is the cell theory? - All living things are made out of cells. - Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms. - All cells come from previously existing cells. - The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of its independent cells.
What is the nucleus? The instructor of the cell.
What does the nuclear membrane do? Encloses the cells DNA.
What is the chromatin? Long strands of DNA located in the nucleus.
What do ribosomes do? Makes substances important for cell function.
What does the cell membrane do? Encloses the cells contents.
What is the cytoplasm? Jelly-like substance that supports all the organelles.
What does the endoplasmic reticulum do? Transports materials through canals to different parts of the cell.
What does the nucleolus do? Manufactures ribosomes.
What does the mitochondria do? Transforms energy for the cell.
What does the golgi body do? Packages useful materials for the cell.
What is the vacuole? Fluid-filled organelle.
What do lysosomes do? Break down wastes.
What is the cell wall? Rigid structure outside the cell membrane?
What do chloroplasts do? Aid in the process of photosynthesis.
What are the differences between a plant and animal cell? Plants have a cell wall, chloroplast, and one large vacuole, while animals have several smaller vacuoles.
What did Robert Hooke do? He viewed a cork under a microscope and revealed empty room-like cells.
What did Francesco Redi do? He Conducted one of the first controlled expiriments, disputing "spontaneous generation".
What did Rutherford do? He performed the gold foil expiriment, and concluded that the atom must contain a nucleus and electron cloud. The work of him and Bohr was the first modern view of the atom. He also named the three types of radiation(alpha,beta,gamma).
What is mitosis? The duplication and division of a cell. Consists of four phases.
Describe the first stage of mitosis. Prophase- The nucleolus disappears and the spindle fibres stretch across the cell from opposite ends of the cell.
Describe the second stage of mitosis. Metaphase- The spindle fibres attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes and line them across the equator of the cell.
Describe the thrid stage of mitosis. Anaphase- The spindle fibres contract, splitting the centromeres, giving each pole of the cell a complete set of DNA.
Describe the final stage of mitosis. Telophase- The nucleus begins to appear around each set of DNA. Cytokenisis can now occur, where the mother cell will split into two daughter cells, each with their own set of DNA.
What happens in interphase? The cell grows, replicates its DNA and prepares for mitosis.
How many chromosomes does a human cell have? 46
Why do stomach cells have such a short lifespan? Because they are in an acidic environment.
What is regeneration? The repair of injured cells or the making of lost body parts.
Why do we age? Because as cells die, they are either not replaced, or replaced more slowly. Sometimes the cells instructions (DNA) is "told" not to undergo mitosis or to replace more slowly.
What causes cancer? Teh rapid growth of abnormal cells that rob the healthy cells of their nutrients. They build up on each other and spread throughout the body.
What is binary fission, and what organism does it occur in? Binary fission occurs in bacteria and ameoba. It is similar to mitosis but it does not contain a true nucleus.
What are three types of asexual reproduction that fungi go through? Fragmentation, Budding, and spores.
What is fragmentation? When a fragment of hyphae breaks away from the main mass and grows as a new individual.
What is budding? When a tiny bud with a nucleus begins to form on the cell wall until it grows and finally breaks away.
What are spores? Reproductive cells which grow new cells through mitotic cell division.
Whatis layering, and what organism does it occur in? Occurs in plants. Plants with special stems called runners have the ability to reproduce easily from these stems.
What is grafting and what organism does it occur in? Occurs in plants. Two different tree parts are attached to grow together.
What is tissue culture and what organism does it occur in? Occurs in plants. Special cells are grown in a laboratory.
What are gametes? Specialized cells for reproduction (sperm and egg).
What does variation mean? That the offspring will have differences in characteristics.
Does variation occur in sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction? Sexual reproduction.
What is the difference between haploid and diploid? Haploid is half the diploid number.
What is the difference between reproductive cells and somatic cells? Reproductive cells are sex cells that are haploid and go through meiosis. Somatic cells are skin and muscle cells that are diploid and go through mitosis.
What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis? Meiosis occurs in reproductive cells which are haploid, and they go through two cell divisions that produce 4 haploid cells. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells, and go through one stage of division which produces 2 diploid cells.
What are the two cell divisions of meiosis called? Meiosis I and Meiosis II
Which phase in meiosis is responsible for variation? Prophase I because crossing over occurs in the homologous pairs.
Why is meiosis necssary? So when gametes combine to form a zygote, it will have 46 chromosomes (23+23=46)
What is the difference between gametes and gonads? Gametes are the sperm and egg, and are produced in the gonads(testes and ovaries).
What is external fertalization? The sperm and egg meet outside of the bodies of both parents. (Usually in water-dwelling animals such as fish)
What is internal fertalization? When the sperm travels from the males body int the female body to meet the egg.
What are hermaphrodites? Animals with both male and female reproductive organs.
What is the importance of variation amung offspring? The offspring become more adaptable to the environment.
What are angiosperms? Flowering plants.
What ar gymnosperms? They do not produce plants, they produce seeds inside cones.
What is pollination? When pollen grains from the anther must reach the stigma of the pistil.
What are four ways angiosperm seeds can be dispersed? Wind, water, animals, or the digestion of fruit.
What is germination? The process in which seeds begin to grow.
What are two advantages of spores? They are light and can be carried great distances; and they can survive unfavorable temperatures.
Give an example of a spore-bearing plant. Ferns.
Created by: taylor.p