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# Science Ch. 5

### vocab.

Thermal Energy the sum of the Kinetic and Potential energy of a material.
Temperature represents the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a material. The greater the average kinetic energy of particles the greater the temperature.
Fahrenheit scale water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees
Celsius scale water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees (the Celsius scale is used by scientists worldwide.
Kelvin scale water freezes at 273 K and boils at 373 K. The lowest possible temperature for any material is 0 K.
Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.
Radiation the transfer of thermal energy from one material to another by electromagnetic waves. All matter including the Sun transfers thermal energy by radiation.
Conduction the transfer of thermal energy between materials by the collisions of particles. Conduction continues until the thermal energy of all particles in contact is equal.
Thermal conductors material through which thermal energy flows easily. Example: medals
Thermal insulators material through which thermal energy does not flow easily. Ex: cloth
Specific Heat amount of thermal energy required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of a material by 1 degrees Celsius. All materials have a specific heat.
Thermal Contraction is a decrease in a materials volume when its temperature decreases.
Thermal Expansion is a increase in a materials volume when its temperature increases.
Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles from one part of a material to another. Only occurs in fluids.
Convection Currents movement of fluids in a cycle because of convection.
What plays a major rule in Earths Climate? Convection currents
Heating Appliance a device that converts electric energy into thermal energy. Examples: curling iron, coffeemakers
Thermostat a device that regulates the temperature of a system. Example: refrigerator, toasters
Refrigerator device that uses electric energy to transfer thermal energy from a cooler location to a warmer location.
Heat Engine a machine that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.
Created by: rdeller