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Advanced Patho EXAM 2

What is the first and second process of respiration? 1st=alveolar respiration 2nd=perfusion
Describe ventilation. Air into lungs/exchange of gases
Why does perfusion have to occur? has to occur for oxygen to get to tissues and into blood
What is a pulmonary emboli (PE)? Undissolved detached material that occludes blood vessels of the pulmonary vasculature
Most PEs originate from? DVTs or from the deep veins of the lower extremities
What are other types of PEs, other than DVTs? fat, air, amniotic fluid, CA (tumor), foreign material
What are risk factors for PEs? sepsis, parasitic, immobility, pregnancy, trauma, heart failure, estrogen use; and virchows triad
What is virchow's triad? hyperocaguability venous stasis/sluggish blood flow damage to venous wall
What is COPD? chronic and recurrent obstruction of airflow of the pulmonary airways that cause a mismatch of ventilation and perfusion
What is the major cause of COPD? cigarette smoking
COPD consists of what two disease/illness? emphysema and chronic bronchitis
What are the s/s of emphysema? progressive exertional dyspnea, SOB, accessory muscles, pursed lip breathing, cough, may hunch forward to breathe better, prolonged expiration, barrel chest
What causes chronic bronchitis? repeated infections, genetic predisposition, inhalation of irritants
What are the s/s of chronic bronchitis? usually overweight, SOB with exertion, excess sputum, edema, smoking HX, chills, aches, fatigue, cough, increased sputum production in a.m.
How does heart disease affect the lungs? Right or left sided heart failure can lead to pulmonary congestion and impaired gas exchange
How does lung disease affect the heart? due to poor gas exchange, lung disease can lead to hypoxia which causes vasoconstriction of pulmonary vessels, which elevates pulm artery pressure & increases workload on R ventricle
Most common pneumonia is caused by what? strep pneumoniae
How does pneumonia enter the system (3 ways/sources)? (1) aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions, (2) inhalation of contaminants (virus), or (3) contamination from the systemic circulation
How does pneumonia affect breathing? There is inflammation of the alveoli and bronchioles which impairs gas exchange
In the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, what causes a shift to the left? hypothermia, alkalosis, decreased PaCO2
In the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, what causes a shift to the right? hyperthermia,anemia, decreased cardiac output
How do chemoreceptors work to protect the body? they are defense mechanisms
Where are the central chemoreceptors located? in the medullary center
What do chemoreceptors respond to? Changes in pH, CO2 and O2 levels
Describe Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders. characterized by airway obstruction and limitation in expiratory flow
List the types of Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders. Asthma,Acute and Chronic bronchitis, or Emphysema
Describe Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders. Result from inflammatory conditions that affect lung structures and produce lung fibrosis and a stiff lung
List the types of Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders. ARDS,Infant Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Pneumothorax, Pneumonia
What is tidal volume (TV)? the volume of air inspired (or exhaled) with each breath; usually about 500mL in avg adult
What is FEV1? the forced expiratory volume that can be exhaled in 1 second
What is residual volume? air left after max exhale
What is ventilation-perfusion? the matching of adequate volume of air in the alveoli to adequate pulmonary blood flow
What are two important substances that help the alveoli function correctly? Surfactant and alpha1 antitrypsin
What is a nl Va/Q? 4/5
What does a high Va/Q? indicate? means they are hyperventilated, alveolar ventilation not perfused, ↓ PCO2, NL PaO2
What does a low Va/Q indicate? it means they are underventilated, ↓ PaO2 (hypoxia)
What is infant respiratory distress syndrome (aka hyaline membrane disease) a lack of surfactant leading to increased alveolar surface tension and decreased lung compliance
How can infant respiratory distress syndrome be fatal? the infant can die from exhaustion
At what pregnancy week is surfactant produced in greater qualities? after week 32
Created by: lbl317537