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FSHN 301 Midterm

how many tsp in a TBSP 3
how many cups in a quart 4
how many cups in a pint 2
how many quarts in a gallon 4
how many TBSP in in a cup 16
how many fl oz in a cup 8
how many g in an oz 28
how many g in a lb 454
subjective measurements (5) difference, analytical, sensitivity, ranking, rating
specific gravity weight of product/weight of water density of a product
four types of heat transfer conduction, convection, radiation, induction
conduction direct transfer
convection currents of water or air
radiation heat waves (grill or broil)
induction electromagnetic field
hedonic tests preference (can use faces)
composite tests multiple parameters (subjective)
drip measurement stability of foams
flakiness height of pastry
compensating polar planimeter measures area
ink prints grain size and shape
linespread consistency (in a line)
consistometer distance moved per unit time
% moisture moisture lost
% sag % sagging
shortometer how much force to break something
seed displacement measures volume of weird shaped product
specific gravity density (amount of air incorporated)
standing height 5 places averaged
syneresis liquid or gel seepage of water
difference tests 2 same; one different
analytical tests descriptive or single sample
sensitivity dilution or threshold
how many oz in a pound 16
mince usually meat into small pieces
julienne long sticks (carrots)
papillote in parchment paper in oven (steamed)
scald large, still bubbles
poach 160-180
parboiling partial boiling for later completion
blanching fast-> sets color, loosens skin, destroys enzymes
boiling temperature in FoCo 202.4
shiny metal pans more cooking time
glass pans speed up cooking time
roasting 400-450
types of sauteing stir-fry; pan-fry; deep fry
connective tissue & tenderness less tender
age of animal & tenderness less tender
cut location & tenderness more exercise= less tender
heat & tenderness less heat= more tender
acid & tenderness acid breaks down proteins= more tender
enzymes & tenderness enzymes break down proteins= more tender
mechanical & tenderness breaks down connective tissue and muscle (more tender)
salt & tenderness retains water; increases juiciness
magic temperature 165
rare steak temp 136-140
medium steak temp 160-167
well done steak temp 172-180
beef safe temp (not ground) 160
pork safe temp 145
cooking loss drip loss + evaporative loss
weight loss original weight- cooked weight
inspection versus grading inspection= is it safe? grading= quality
grading of meat (3) prime -> choice -> select
magnetron tube magnetic and electrical fields that produce radiation to cook food
microwave stirrer distributes airflow (turntable helps too)
factors affecting microwave cooking time temp, density, size, water content, fat/sugar content
microwave advantages quick, easy, cheap
microwave disadvantages no browning; close attention, hot spots
materials to use in microwave glass, ceramic, paper, wood/straw, certain plastics NOT METAL HERP DA DERP
what determines meat color? myoglobin
grading for chicken A, B, C (voluntary)
internal temperature of chicken 165
fricasseeing white sause
braising salt solution
fish collagen low- 3%
fish composition myocommata (thin tissue)-> makes up myotomes (muscle fibers)
fish grading wholesomeness, sanitary condition (only finfish) *voluntary
gaping holes in flesh due to age
cooking loss and temperature higher= more loss
cooking chicken in foil increases loss
types of cakes shortened (fat) or unshortened -> shortens protein fibers
function of eggs (5) structure, leavening, emulsifier, color, flavor
sugar substitutes less effective w/ foam formation; less browning
light sensitive nutrients (3) vitamin D, vitamin A, riboflavin
proteins in milk casein and whey
whey coagulation 150 degrees
casein coagulation 100 C for 12 hours
rennin enzyme used in cheese making; acidic medium; Ca stays w/ casein
cultured milk products buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, kefir
isoelectric point pH when the total number of + and - charges are equal (zero net charge)
pH>pI cations
pH <pI anions
russian meal service (most formal) crumbing; meal served in courses
french meal service cart serving
chef de rang waiter
commis de rang assistant waiter
american meal service meals from kitchen on plate
ways to cut cost (5) <5 oz meat per person; frozen/canned fish; nonfat dry milk; bulk; frozen when possible
percent yield edible portion/as perchased
Created by: melaniebeale