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2.1-2.3 Vocab

Glucagon A protein hormone secreted by the pancreatic cells that raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to insulin
Glucose Tolerance Testing A test of the body's abitlity to metabolize glucose that involves the intake of a measured dose of glucose to the fasting stomach and the measure of glucose levels in the blood or urine at intervals thereafter and that is used detect diabetes
Homeostasis The maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions(as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions
Hormone A product of living cells that circulates in blood and produces a specific, often stimulatory, effect on the activity of cells that are often far from the source of the hormone
Insulin A protein secreted by the pancreas that is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of glucose levels in the blood
Negative Feedback A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation
Positive Feedback Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output
Type 1 Diabetes Diabetes of a form that usually develops during childhood or adolescense and is characterized by a severe deficiency of insulin, leading to high blood glucose levels
Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes of a form that develops especially in adults and most often obese people and that is characterized by high blood glucose resulting from impared insulin utiliazation coupled w/ the body's inability to compensate with increased insulin production
Adenine Triphosphate (ATP) A compound composed of Adenosine and three phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis
Amino Acid An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins
Calorie The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1C; also the amount of heat energy that 1g of water realease when it cools by 1C. the Calorie (capital C), usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie.
Carbohydrate A sugar in the form of a monosacchride, disacchride, or polysacchride
Chemical Bond An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound
Chemical Indicator A substance (as a dye) used to show visually usually by its capacity for color change, the condition of a solution with respect to the presence of free acid or alkali or some other substance.
Chemical Reaction Chemical transformation or change; the interaction f chemical entities
Compound A substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
Covalent Bond A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Dehydration Synthesis A chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule
Disacchride A double sugar molecule made of two monosaccharides boded together through dehydration synthesis
Element The smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of a substance and is composed of one or more atoms
Glucose a monomer of carbohydrate, simple sugar
Homeostasis The maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions (as body temperature or pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions
Hydrolysis A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water
Ionic Bond A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charger ions
Lipid One of a family of compounds including fats phospholipids, and steroids that is insoluble in water
Macromolecule A type of giant molecule formed by joining smaller molecules which includes proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids
Molecule Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Monomer The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Monosacchride A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar
Nutrient A substance that is needed by the body to maintain life and health
Polymer A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units or molecules linked together
Polysacchride A polymer of thousands of simple sugars formed by dehydration synthesis
Protein A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids
Hemoglobin A1c A test that measures the level of hemoglobin A1c in the blood as a means of determining the average blood sugar concentrations for the preceding two or three months
Hyperglycemia An excess of sugar in the blood
Hypertonic In comparing two solutions, reffering to the one with a lower solute concentration
Hypoglycemia Abnormal decress of sugar in the blood
Hypotonic In comparing two solutions, reffering to the one with a lower solute concentration
Isotonic Having the same solute concentration an another solution.
Osmosis The movement of water across a selectively permiable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Solute A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Solution A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Solvent The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.
Created by: nikkilapadat