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Evolution and Darwin

evolution the processes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today change in genes
Jean Baptiste Lamarck proposed "The inheritance of acquired characteristics"
Charles Darwin realized that natural forces gradually change Earth's surface and that the forces of the past are still operating in modern times
Charles Darwin wrote "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
Charles Darwin traveled to the Galapagos Islands to collect plants and animals, and he observed species that lived no where else in world
Jean Baptiste Lamarck proposed that by using or not using its body parts, an individual tends to develop certain characteristics, which it passes on to its offspring
1. Species were not created in their present form, but evolved from ancestral species 2. Proposed a mechanism for evolution: NATURAL SELECTION Darwin's two main points
Differential Reproduction Individuals with favorable traits are more likely to leave more offspring better suited for their environment
Artificial Selection the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by man
1. Biogeography 2. Fossil Record 3. Evidence of Taxonomy 4. Homologous structures 5. Comparative embryology 6. Molecular biology Evidence of evolution
popular genetics the science of genetic change in population
population a localized group of individuals belonging to the same species
species a group of populations whose individuals have the potential to interbreed and produce viable offspring
gene pool the total collection of genes in a population at any one time
Hardy-Weinberg Principle the concept that the shuffling of genes that occur during sexual reproduction, by itself, cannot change the overall genetic makeup of a population
1. Very large population 2. Isolation from other populations 3. No net mutations 4. Random mating 5. No natural selection The Hardy-Weinberg Principle will be maintained in nature only if all five of these conditions are met:
macroevolution the origin of taxonomic groups higher than the species level
microevolution a change in a population's gene pool over a secession of generations
1. Genetic Drift 2. Gene Flow 3. Mutation 4. Non-random mating 5. Natural Selection Five Mechanisms of Microevolution
genetic drift change in the gene pool over a secession of generations
founder effect genetic drift resulting from the colonization of a new location by a small number of individuals
gene flow the gain or loss of alleles from a population by the movement of individuals or gametes
mutation change in an organism's DNA that creates a new allele
non-random mating the selection of mates other than by chance
natural selection Differential reproduction
1. Stabilizing selection 2. Directional selection 3. Diversifying selection Natural Selection
speciation the evolution of new species
convergent evolution species from different evolutionary branches may come to resemble one another if they live in very similar environments
coevolution evolutionary change, in which one species act as a selective force on a second species, inducing adaptions that in turn act as selective force on the first species
biogeography geographical distribution of species
fossil record fossils and the order in which they appear in layers of sedimentary rock
Evidence of Taxonomy classification of life forms
homologous structures structures that are similar because of common ancestry
comparative embryology study of structures that appear during embryonic development
molecular biology DNA and proteins (amino acids)
Created by: pace_sauce