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MCB Exam 2 - Part 4

Transcription, Translation, and Regulation

RNA transcripts are produced in the _to_ direction, while the DNA template is read in the __to__ direction. Once the RNA is made, it is read __to__ in order to produce a polypeptide from __terminus to __terminus. 5' to 3'; 3' to 5'; N term. to C Term.
What is the rate limiting step of transcription? recognition and binding of promoter sequence by RNA polymerase
Approximately how many bases are unwound at the open complex transcription? 17 bp
The 5' to 3' strand is the ____ strand. The 3' to 5' strand is the ____ strand. Which one does is used to make RNA? Template/antisense (-) Coding/sense (+) Template is used to make RNA
The rate of polmerization of RNA polymerase is [FASTER/SLOWER] than DNA polmerase. The error rate of RNA pol is [GREATER/LESS THAN] DNA pol. Slower (50 bp/s) Greater (1 mistake/ 10^4 - 10^5 bp)
Which subunit of the prokaryote polymerase is responsible for binding the promoter sequence and determining what type of genes get transcribed (ie heat shock vs general)? When is it released? σ - after the open complex forms and RNA pol begins elongation
What do each of the 3 eukaryotic RNA polmerases transcrip? RNA pol I - rRNA; RNA pol II - mRNA; RNA pol III - 5 S rRNA, tRNA, snRNA, miRNA
Which of the eukaryotic RNA polmerases contain a carboxy terminal domain on one of its subunits. What is the purpose of this domain? RNA pol II - phosphorlated by TFIIH in the initiation complex to release RNA pol II and TFIIF
What are the 2 fairly conserved promoters in prokaryotes? -35 region and -10 region (privo box)
What are the 3 structural genes of the lac operon. What are the 3 control/regulatory regions? Which are trans or cis? Structural - z (ß-Galactosidase), Y (permase to take up lactose), α (acetylase) Control - i (regulator - trans), p (promoter), o (operator - cis)
In catabolic repression of the lac operon [HIGH/LOW] glucose activates __ to produce cAMP to bind/activate ___. This TF then binds genes upstream of P+O to stimulate transcription. LOW adenyly cyclase CAP
If a cis regulatory element is before the P+O will activate or repress transcription? After? Before - activates; After - represses
Which enzyme was used to determine where eukaryotic polmerases are found in the cell. Which RNA pol are inhibited and where are they found? α-Amanitin; inhibited RNA pol II and RNA pol III at high concentrations; RNA pol I is in nucleolus, pol II and III are in nucleoplasm
What is the eukaryotic promoter? What are the 2 upstream activating sequences? What sequence is found at transcription initiation site if there is no TATAA box? What genes are these usually found in? TATAA CAAT box and GC box; INR sequences - house-keeping genes
Created by: c.phill