|Cells control their chemical environment using
||Energy,Enzymes, and The plasma membrane
|Cell-based nanotechnology may be used to ||power microscopic robots.|
|the capacity to perform work is ||Energy|
|energy of motion is ||Kinetic energy |
|stored energy is ||Potential energy |
|_____and _______ can transform kinetic energy to potential energy and vice versa ||Machines and organisms|
|the principle of _________ is the energy cannot be created or destroyed ||conservation of energy|
|is a measure of disorder, or randomness ||entropy|
|this is a Type of kinetic energy and Product of all energy conversions
|Every energy conversion releases some randomized energy in the form of ||Heat|
|store varying amounts of potential energy in the arrangement of their atoms ||Molecules|
|Organic compounds are relatively rich in ||chemical energy|
|__________ and ___________ engines use the same basic process to make chemical energy do work ||Living cells and automobile |
|is the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of fuel molecules that provides energy for cells to do work ||Cellular respiration |
|_____ convert about 40% of the energy in food to useful work, such as the contraction of muscles ||Humans|
|is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree Celsius ||A calorie |
|are kilocalories, equal to 1,000 calories ||Food Calories |
|is Released by the breakdown of organic molecules during cellular respiration and
used to generate molecules of ATP
||Chemical energy |
|what Acts like an energy shuttle, Stores energy obtained from food and Releases it later as needed
|what does ATP stand for ||adenosine triphosphate|
|what is ATP broken down to ||ADP and a phosphate group, releasing energy|
|What is ATP consists of ||adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups|
|ATP is recycled from ADP and a phosphate group through ||cellular respiration|
|A working muscle cell spends and recycles about 10 million ||ATP molecules per second|
|is the total of all chemical reactions in an organism ||Metabolism|
|Most metabolic reactions require the assistance of ______proteins that speed up chemical reactions ||enzymes|
|what activates the reactants and triggers a chemical reaction. A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell. ||Activation energy
|______ lower the activation energy for chemical reactions ||Enzymes|
|EA specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific _______ of the reaction it catalyzes ||substrate|
|what is a substrate ||a specific reactant molecule
|The _________ fits to the substrate, and the enzyme changes shape slightly. This interaction is called _______ ||1)active site
|______ can prevent metabolic reactions by binding to the active site. ||Enzyme inhibitors |
|Some products of a reaction may inhibit the enzyme required for its production this is called ||feedback regulation|
|feedback regulation prevents the cell from ||wasting resources|
|Many antibiotics work by _______ of disease-causing bacteria. ||inhibiting enzymes |
|What is distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs? ||Only autotrophs can live on nutrients that are entirely inorganic|
|Cells can harvest the most chemical energy from which of the following? ||a glucose molecule|
|Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center want to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles are functioning anaerobically. They can do this by checking for a buildup of ||lactic acid|
|Containing or requiring molecular oxygen (O2). ||aerobic|
|Lacking or not requiring molecular oxygen (O2). ||anaerobic|
|A protein cluster, found in a cellular membrane, that uses the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP from ADP ||ATP synthase |
|What provides a port through which hydrogen ions (H1) diffuse. ||ATP synthase |
|An organism that makes its own food from inorganic ingredients, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules ||Autotroph |
|The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules ||cellular respiration |
|The metabolic cycle that is fueled by acetyl CoA formed after glycolysis in cellular respiration. ||citric acid cycle |
|An organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants. ||Consumer|
|A subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom. ||electron |
|A redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred to carrier molecules ||electron transport|
|A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; ||electron transport chain |
|The anaerobic harvest of food by some cells. ||fermentation |
|The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid; the first stage of cellular respiration in all organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid. ||glycolysis |
|An organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules from inorganic ingredients and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or their organic products; a consumer or a decomposer in a food chain. ||Heterotroph |
|the anaerobic harvest of food by some cells ||Fermentation|
|The gain of electrons by a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies oxidation ||reduction|
|An electron carrier (a molecule that carries electrons) involved in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. ||NADH|
|what carries electrons from glucose and other fuel molecules and deposits them at the top of an electron transport chain ||NADH|
|NADH is generated during _______ and ________. ||glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.|
|The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies reduction. ||oxidation |
|The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. ||osmosis |
|The interaction between a substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme, which changes shape slightly to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction. ||induced fit |
| a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs large molecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm. ||phagocytosis |
|The movement of materials from the external environment into the cytoplasm of a cell via vesicles or vacuoles ||endocytosis |
|Everything inside a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell. ||cytoplasm|
|In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with the greater concentration of solutes. ||hypertonic |
|In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with the lower concentration of solutes. ||hypotonic |
|The control of the gain or loss of water and dissolved solutes in an organism. ||osmoregulation |
|The spontaneous movement of particles of any kind down a concentration gradient; that is, movement of particles from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated. ||diffusion |
|The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane without any input of energy. ||passive transport |
|A substance that is dissolved in a liquid (which is called the solvent) to form a solution. ||solute |
|Having the same solute concentration as another solution. ||isotonic |
|The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches (by means of weak chemical bonds); typically, a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface. ||active site |
|A surface in or on which an organism lives. ||substrate |
|A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell. ||signal transduction pathway |
|Which of the following is not a characteristic of all living organisms?
2)complex yet organized
3)composed of multiple cells
4)capable of self-reproduction ||composed of multiple cells|
|Which of the following best describes the logic of the scientific method?
1)If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
2)If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results. ||If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.|
|Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?
1)Theories are hypotheses that have been proved.
2)Hypotheses usually are narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power ||Hypotheses usually are narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power|
|Animals depend on plants to convert solar energy to:
||Chemical energy of sugars
Other molecules we consume as food
|Uses light energy from the sun to power a chemical process that makes organic molecules.
|Autotrophs are _______ because ecosystems depend upon them for food ||producer|
|Heterotrophs are ______ because they eat plants or other animals.
|The ingredients for photosynthesis are _____ and _______ ||carbon dioxide and water.
|CO2 is obtained from ||the air by a plant’s leaves.
|H2O is obtained from
||he damp soil by a plant’s roots.|
|Plant and animal cells perform cellular respiration, a chemical process that:
||Primarily occurs in mitochondria
Harvests energy stored in organic molecules
|The waste products of cellular respiration are:
||CO2 and H2O
Used in photosynthesis
|true or false only animals perform only cellular respiration.
||False- Plants perform Photosynthesis and cellular respiration|
|Cellular respiration is:
||The main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP
|A common fuel molecule for cellular respiration is ||glucose.
|How many ATP can cellular respiration produce for each glucose molecule consumed? ||38|
|True or false During cellular respiration, hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners.
|During cellular respiration Hydrogen and its electrons go from ||sugar to oxygen, forming water.
|Why does electron transfer to oxygen release energy?
||When electrons move from glucose to oxygen, it is as though the electrons were falling.
This “fall” of electrons releases energy during cellular respiration.
|true or false Cellular respiration:
Is an example of a metabolic pathway, which is a series of chemical reactions in cells
|All of the reactions involved in cellular respiration can be grouped into three main stages:
The citric acid cycle
|Cyanide is a deadly poison that:
||Binds to one of the protein complexes in the electron transport chain
Prevents the passage of electrons to oxygen
Stops the production of ATP
|In addition to glucose, cellular respiration can “burn”:
||Diverse types of carbohydrates
|Yeast are a type of microscopic fungus that:
||Use a different type of fermentation
Produce CO2 and ethyl alcohol instead of lactic acid
|This type of fermentation, called alcoholic fermentation, is used to produce: