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MCB Exam 2 - Part 2

Hansen's Lectures :( Cell Cycle Regulation, Cytoskeleton

Cell division model that focuses on division of cell components (mainly cytoplasm and nucleus) Karyokinesis-Cytokinesis Model
Cell division model that focuses on sequence of cell cycle events G1-S-G2-M Model
DNA content can be measured throughout the cell cycle by the technique of ____. This shows what order of DNA content? flow cytometry: Go/G1 < S < G2
What 2 stages of cell development are found in the Go stage? Which one is unable to renter the cell cycle? Differentiated and terminally differentiated cells (terminal cells can't reenter)
What are the 2 types of cell cycle checkpoints 1) check for damaged or unreplicated DNA 2) make sure all the cell cycle events occur in the correct order
What 3 factors can stimulate a cell to enter the cell cycle (ie Restriction point or Go → G1) growth factors; cytokines; cell adhesion
Growth factors bind _____ receptors to stimulate the _____ pathway. This leads to upregulation of cyclin ____ tyrosine kinase receptors; ras-raf-MEK-MAP kinase pathway; cyclin D
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs) phosphorolate ___'s on proteins. The interphase cyclins include: CDK4/6-Cyclin___, CDK2-____, CDK2-____. The mitotic cyclin is CDK1-___ aka ____ serines and threonines; CDK4/6-cycD, CDK2-cycE, CDK2-cycA; CDK1/cycB aka MPF
During the cell cycle, ____ protein levels fluctuate, which _____ remain constant but their activity level fluctuates. cyclin; CDK
Ink4 and Cip/Kip family proteins are types of what? CDK inhibitors - Ink4 inhibit CDK4/6, Cip/Kip inhibit CDK2
What 2 Cip/Kip CDK inhibitors cause G1 Arrest by inhibiting the action of CDK4/6-cycD. What causes their respective upregulation? p27 (decrease Growth Factor stimulation) p53 (double-stranded DNA breaks) (Note: activates p21 which causes G1 arrest)
What E2F and Rb inhibit? How is their inhibition turned off? cyclin E transcription; CDK4/6-cycD phosphorolate Rb so E2F can bind and upregulate cyclin E
What is the target of CDK2/cycE? What ensures that replication only happens once? MCM helicase; DNA pol diplaces helicase
What are the 4 functions of MPF? 1) phos. lamins to cause nuclear envelope breakdown 2)phos golgi proteins to cause golgi fragmentation 3) phos condensins to cause chromosome condensation 4)centrosomes and kinetochores to cause spindle formation
What protein dephosphorolates CDK2 to allow for S → G2? What inhibits it? cdc 25; CHK2 and CHK1 from single and double stranded DNA breaks (G2 arrest)
Double-stranded breaks in DNA activates ___ which then activates ____ which in turn activates ____ to cause G1 arrest. Single-strand breaks activate __ that activates ___. ATM → CHK2 → p53; ATR → CHK1
Proper spindle formation activates ___ which complexes with ___ to ubiquinate cyc B as well as securin so ___ can degrade cohesins. If the spindle is incorrect, __+___ are activated to bind and inactivate complex and prevent chromosome separation cdc 20; APC/C; separase; Mad + Bub
What event marks late prophase? movement of chromosomes
In the spindle apparatus, ____ MTs overlap at the center of the cell to stabalize ends of MTs, ___ bind the ends of chromosomes, __ bind kinetochore motor proteins to pull chromatids to - end, and ___ extend to the edge of the cell and bind cytoskeleton polar; chromosomal; kinetochore; astral
The intrinsic apoptosis pathway involves DNA damage activating ___ which causes the release of ___ from mitochondria to activate capase ___. Bax; cyt c; capase 9
The extrinsic apoptotic pathway involves binding of a ___ receptor to activate capase ___. The intrinsic pathway is then activated via ___ which activates ____. TNF receptor; capase 8; Bid → Bax
What are the 4 targets of capases? 1) ICAD - removes inhibition on CAD to cleave DNA b/w nucleosomes 2) lamins - causes nuclear envelope breakdown 3) cytoskeleton - causes blebbin 4) golgi proteins - causes golgi fragmentation
Created by: c.phill