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World Geography 2345

Chapter 3 & 4 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Culture The way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs
Population Density The average number of people living in a given area
Birthrate The number of live births each year per 1,000 people
Immigrant A person who moves into a country
Emigrant A person who leaves a country to live in another
Urbanization The growth of city populations
Rural Of, or characteristic of, the countryside
Culture Hearth A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
Cultural Convergence The contact and interaction of one culture
Diffusion The process by which a cultural element is transmitted from one group to another
Cultural Divergence The restriction of a culture from outside influences
Sovereignty A countrys freedom and power to decide on policies
Unitary System A system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power
Federation A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
Confederation A system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to central government
Authoritarian Descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power
Dictatorship A system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person
Totalitarianism A system of government in which a countrys authority controls all aspects of society
Monarchy A system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch- a king, queen, shah, or sultan-- Whose position is usually inherited
Democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine governmetn policy
Traditional Economy An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods, also known as a subsistence economy
Market Economy An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
Command Economy An economic system that is controlled by a single central government
Primary Economic Activity An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining
Subsistence Farming Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village
Commercial Farming The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets
Secondary Economic Activity An economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products
Cottage Industry A small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near peoples homes
Commercial Industry A large scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods
Tertiary Economic Activity An economic activity in which peopole do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry
Quaternary Economic Activity An economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information such as education or research
Export An item that is sent out of the country for sale
Import An item that is brought into the country for sale
Created by: allisonplunk