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Ch. 3&4

Chapter 3 & 4

TermDefinition
culture the way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs.
population density The average number of people living in a given area
birthrate the number of live births each year per 1,000 people.
immigrant a person who moves into a country.
emigrant a person who leaves a country to live somewhere else
urbanization The growth of city populations.
rural of, or characteristics of, the country side.
culture hearth a place in which important ideas begin and therefore spread to surrounding cultures.
cultural convergence the contact and interaction of one culture from outside influence.
diffusion the process by which a cultural element i transmitted from one group or individual to another.
cultural divergence the restriction of a culture from outside influences.
Sovereignty a country's freedom and power to decide on policies and actions.
unitary system a system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power.
federation A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
confederation A system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government.
authoritarian Descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power.
dictatorship A system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.
totalitarianism a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.
monarchy a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch- a king, queen, shah, or sultan- whose position is usually inherited.
democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy
traditional economy an economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, as a subsistence economy.
market economy an economic system in which decisions about production, price and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.
command economy an economic system that is controlled by a single central government.
Natural resource a material int he natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
renewable resource a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used
nonrenewable resource A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used.
fossil fuel any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel
nuclear energy a type of energy produced by fission the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy
water power energy produced from falling water move machinery or generate electricity.
geothermal energy energy produced from the earths intense interior heat.
solar energy energy produced from the sun.
primary economic activity an economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining.
subsistence farming farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village
commercial farming The raising of crops and livestock for sale i outside markets.
secondary economic activity an economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value.
cottage industry a small scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near peoples homes.
commercial industry A large scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods
tertiary economic activity an economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry.
Quaternary economic activity an economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing and sharing of information, such as education or research.
export an item that is sent out of the country for sale
import an item that is brought into the country for sale.
Created by: Adriansotelo