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Chapter 3-4 Vocab

QuestionAnswer
culture the way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs
population density the average number of people living in a given area
birthrate the number of live births each year per 1,000 people
immigrant a person who moves into a country
emigrant a person who leaves a country to live elsewhere
urbanization the growth of city population
rural of, or characteristic of, the countryside
culture hearth a place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
cultural convergence the contact and interaction of one culture with another
diffusion the process by which a cultural element is transmitted from one group or one individual to another
cultural divergence the restriction of a culture from outside influences
sovereignty a countries freedom and power to decide on policies and actions
unitary system a system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power
federation a government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local government
confederation a system of government in which indivual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government
authoritarian descriptive of a system or government in which the leaders hold all political power
dictatorship a system of government in which absolute power is help by a small group or one person
monarchy a system of authorized government headed by a monarch, whos position is usally inherited
democracy a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policies
traditional economy an economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods
market economy an economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
command economy and economic system that is controlled by a single central government
totalitarianism a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society
natural resource a material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
renewable resource a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used
nonrenewable resource a natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used
fossil fuel any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel
nuclear energy a type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy
water power energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity
geothermal energy energy produced from the earth's intense interior heat
solar energy energy produced by the sun
primary economic activity an economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining
subsistence farming an economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy
commercial farming the raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets
secondary economic activity an economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products for greater value
cottage industry a small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near peoples homes
commercial industry a large-scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods
tertiary economic activity an economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry
quaternary economic activity an economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing information, such as education or research
export an item that is sent out of the country for sale
import an item that is brought into the country for sale
Created by: MakailaTyer21