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world Geo 59

Chapter 3&4 vocab

TermDefinition
culture the way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government language religion customs, and beliefs
population density the average number of people living in a given area
birthrate the number of live births each year per 1000 people
immigrant a person that moves in to a country
emigrant a person who leaves a country to live somewhere else
urbanization the growth of city populations
rural of, or characteristic of, the countryside
culture hearth a place n which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
cultural convergence the contact and interaction of one culture with another
diffusion the process by which a cultural element is transmitted from power is held by one group or individual to another
cultural divergence the process by which people adopt the practices of their neighbors
sovereignty a country's freedom and power to decide on policies and actions
unitary system a system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power
federation a government structure in which some powers are given to the national governments and others powers are reserved for more local governments
confederation a system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central
authoritarian descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power
dictatorship a system of government in which absolute power is held by small group or one person
totalitarianism a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society
monarchy a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch: a king queen shah or sultan whose position is usually inherited
democracy a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy
traditional ecanomy an economic system in which families produce goods and services for there own use,with little surplus and exchange of goods also known as a subsistence economy
market economy an economic system in which decisions about production price and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
command economy an economic system that is controlled by a single central government
Natural resources a material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
Renewable Resources a natural resource that the environment contentious to supply or replace as it is used
nonrenewable resource a natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used
fossil fuel any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants ans animals ans used for fuel
nuclear energy The energy released during nuclear fission or fusion
water power Power that is derived from the weight or motion of water, used as a force to drive machinery
geothermal energy energy derived from the heat in the interior of the earthenergy derived from the heat in the interior of the earth
solar energy Radiant energy emitted by the sun
primary economic activity using natural resources: farming, fishing, lumbering, mining
subsistence farming farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing
commercial farming food production for market sale. Farmer has economic aims such as profit maximization.
secondary economic activity an economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value
cottage industry A business or manufacturing activity carried on in a person's home
tertiary economic activity services provided for others in exchange for money or product: banking, nursing, teaching
Quaternary economic activity an economic activity that focuses on the acquisitions processing ans sharing of information such as education or research
export an item that is sent out of the country for sale
import an item brought into the country for sale
commercial industry a large scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produce large quantities of goods
Created by: nickunderwood