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ABA Chapter 2


antecedent An environmental condition or stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behaviour of interest.
consequence A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest. Some consequences, especially those that are immediate and relevant to current motivational states, have significant influence on future behavior; others have little effect
respondent behavior The response component of a reflex; behavior that is elicited, or induced, by antecedent stimuli
behavior The activity of living organisms; human behavior includes everything that people do. A technical definition:" that portion of an organism's interaction with its environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some
behaviour part of the organism and that the results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment.
response A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behaviour. Technical definition: an "action of an organism's effector. An effector is an organ at the end of and efferent nerve fiber that is specialized for alternating its environment
response mechanically, chemically or in terms of energy changes
response class A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment
repertoire All of the behaviors a person can do; or a set of behaviors relevant to a particular setting or task (e.g. gardening, math problem solving)
environment The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment
stimulus "As energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells"
stimulus class A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal (eg. size, colour), temporal (e.g. antecedent, consequence), and/or functional (eg. discriminative stimulus) dimensions.
reflex A stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent and the response behavior it elicits (e.g. bright light- pupil contraction). Unconditioned and conditioned reflexes protect against harmful stimuli, help regulate the internal balance and economy of
reflex con't the organism, and promote reproduction
habituation A decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of a stimulus; most often used to describe a reduction of respondent behavior as a function of repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus over a short span of time; some researchers suggest that
habituation con't the concept also applies to within-session changes in operant behaviour.
respondent conditioning A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus(NS) is presented with and unconditioned stimulus(US) until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response. ( also called classical conditioning)
stimulus-stimulus pairing A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
neutral stimulus A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior.
Conditioned stimulus The stimulus component of a conditioned reflex; a formally neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus or another CS
Conditioned reflex A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus (eg. sound of fridge door opening) and the response it elicits (e.g.. salivation); each person's repertoire of conditioned reflexes is the product of his or her history
CR con't of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).
higher order conditioning Development of a conditioned reflex by pairing of a neutral stimulus (NS) with a conditioned stimulus (CS). Also called secondary conditioning.
operant behaviour Behavior that is selected, maintained and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences; each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny)
Ontogeny The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
Selection by consequence The fundamental principle underlying operant conditioning;the basic tenet is that all forms of operant behavior, from simple to complex, are selected, shaped, and maintained by their consequences during an individuals lifetime; Skinner's concept of
S by C con't selection by consequences is parallel to Darwin's concept of natural selection of genetic structures in the evolution of species.
Phylogeny The history of the natural evolution of a species.
operant conditioning The basic process by which operant learning occurs; consequences (stimulus changes immediately following responses) result in an increased (reinforcement) or decreased (punishment) frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and
environmental condition in the future.
Reinforcer A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
Punisher A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it
automaticity of reinforcement Refers to the fact that behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness; a person does not have to recognize or verbalize the relation between their behavior and a reinforcing consequence, or even know that a consequence
has occurred, for reinforcement to "work."
Positive Reinforcement Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
Negative Reinforcer A stimulus whose termination (or reduction in intensity) functions as reinforcement.
aversive stimulus In general, an unpleasant or noxious stimulus; more technically, a stimulus change or condition that functions (a) to evoke a behaviour that has terminated it in the past, (b) as a punisher whe presented following behaviour, and/or (c) as a reinforcer
when withdrawn following behaviour.
extinction The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behaviour ( i.e. responses no longer produce reinforcement); the primary effect is a decrease in the frequency of the behavior until it reaches a pre reinforced level or ultimately ceases to
punishment Occurs when stimulus immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions
unconditioned reinforcer As stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. Unconditioned reinforcers are the product of the evolutionary development of the species
(phylogeny). Also called primary or unlearned reinforcer
Motivating Operations (MO) An environmental variable that (a) alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event; and (b) alters (increases or decreases) the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or
punished by that stimulus, object or event.
deprivation The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer; also refers to a procedure for increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (eg. with holding access to a reinforcer
for some time before a session)
satiation A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behaviour; also refers to a procedure for reducing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (eg. presenting
a person with copious amounts of reinforcing stimuli before a session)
unconditioned punisher A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediate precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. Unconditioned punishers are products of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny),
meaning that all members of all members of a species are more or less susceptible to punishment by the presentation of unconditioned punishers ( also called primary punisher)
Conditioned reinforcers A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers: sometime called secondary or learned reinforcers.
Conditioned punisher A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers; sometimes caller secondary or learned punishers.
Discriminated Operant An operant the occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
Discriminative stimulus (Sd) A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced; this history of differential reinforcement is the reason Sd increases the
momentary frequency of the behaviour.
Three-term Contingency The basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior; encompasses the temporal and possibly dependent relations among an antecedent stimulus, behaviour, and consequence.
Contingency refers to dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behaviour and its controlling variables.
Contingent Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred
history of reinforcement An inclusive term referring to in general to all of a person's learning experiences and more specifically to past conditioning with respect to particular response classes or aspects of a person's repertoire.
behavior change tactic A technologically consistent method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior (eg. differential reinforcement of other behavior , response cost); possesses sufficient generality across subjects, settings, and/or behaviors to
warrant its codification and dissemination.
Principle of behaviour A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with generality across organisms, species, settings, behaviours, and time (e.g.. extinction, positive reinforcement); an empirical generalization
inferred from many experiments demonstrating the same functional relation.
Created by: Allison3000