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UGA Anthropology1101


Kinship how humans classify themselves (and others); an emic classification of relatedness. Includes biological relatives and fictive kin Determines membership in decent groups
Fictive kin non-biologically based kinship
Decent groups kin based corporate group that organizes people and resources
apical ancestor (the top) Decent is traced from one common ancestor
Demonstrated decent lineage—members can recite the names of the forebears in each generation from the apical ancestor through the present
Stipulated decent clan
Biological kinship construction based on biological decent and relatedness: by blood
Cultural kinship construct based on society’s definition, may include distant and/or fictive kin depends on the culture who is included
Kinship reckoning/kin terms words used for different relatives in a particular language
Genealogical kin type the actual genealogical relationship
Nuclear family consists of parents and children, normally living together in the same household. Lasts as long as the parents stay together
Matrilineal kinship is traced through the mother; children join the mother’s group at birth and remain a member for life
Patrilineal traced through father; automatically belongs to the father’s group
Ambilineal members can choose lineage, no one is automatically excluded
Lineal reckoning paternal generation kin terminology with four terms: same term for father brother and mother brother and same for mother sister and father sister EXAMPLE: the united states
Bifurcate merging kinship mother and mother sister called the same term, father and father brother share the same term; mother brother and father sister are called by different terms EXAMPLE: Cherokee
Generational kin ship two terms for parental generation: one for mother, mother sister, father sister; another for father, father brother, and mother brother EXAMPLE: Kalahari San
Linage vs. Clan members of clans state their decadence, but do not biologically trace genealogical links. Lineage is based on demonstrated decent.
Benefits of kin membership food, power, ritual, law, residence, and inheritance
Exogamy rule requiring people to marry outside their own group
Endogamy rule/practice of marriage between people of the same social group
Monogamy the taking of one spouse, one relationship
Pologamy multiple spouces; multiple simultaneous relationships= plural marriage
Polyandry plural marriage when woman takes more than one husband
Polgyny man takes more than one wife
Postmerital residence Matrilocal, Patrilocal, Ambilocal, or Neolocal
Matrilocal couple moves to wife’s mother’s community; children are raised in mother’s community
Patrilocal couple moves to husbands father’s community; children raised in dad’s community
Ambilocal couple chooses between the mother and the father’s community
Neolocal couple establishes a new place of residence= “home of their own”
Bridewealth compensation given to the brides decent group for loss of progeny
Dowry compensates the husband’s family for privilege of interfamilial relationships
Social organization as adaptation to natural environment: (blank)
Cherokee Economy: labor-intensive maize agriculture Key resources: narrow floodplains, female laborers Clans: matrilineal Inheritance: matrilineal Marriage: monogamy, exogamous Postmerital residence: matrilocal Allegiances: large political alliances
Nuer Economy: cattle herdingKey resources: cattleClans: polygyny, if men can pay progeny priceInheritance: patrilinealMarriage: patrilinealPostmerital residence: patrilocalAllegiances: segmentary organization
Pahari Economy: land-intensive agriculture Key resources: small fields Inheritance: traditionally patrilineal; land subdivided equally among son’s household Marriage: monogamy; fraternal polyandry Allegiances: limited
Kalahari San Economy: foraging Key resources: no heritable resources Clans: none Naming system: everyone is kin- generational Inheritance: none but access to water holes Marriage: monogamous Postmerital residence: neolocal Allegiances: integrated, egalitarian
Subsistence source from which food and other items necessary for existence are obtained; Controls population growth and impacts the technology that is required for survival. Has enormous ecological ramifications.
Sociopolitical systems must be looked at as a whole. Why? Ecological, socio-cultural, political, and economic systems can not be understood independently of one another.
“Primitive Peoples” not living fossils, but they challenge our notion of progress- shows that human evolution is not progressive or linear
5 ways of making a living Foraging, Horticulture, Pastoral herding, Agriculture, and Industrialism
Foraging getting food directly from nature, oldest form of subsistence, influenced by the evolutionary development of our species
Horticulture shifting cultivation- slash and burn- oldest form of agriculture, non mechanized form of agriculture
Pastoral herding food producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals
Agriculture agrarian, intensive use of land and labor, continuous cultivation. Low tech
Industrialism highly capitalized, high tech production
Intensive strategies intensive use of land and labor, continuous cultivation- low tech, requires lots of land
Extensive strategies sheep and cattle farming in areas with low agricultural productivity. Heavily dependent on input
Inuit Eskimo Case Study modern hunters and gatherer: Subsistence food economy underpins their society. Whaling acting as a socially binding force. Subsistence as vital to the emotional well-being of the community. Subsistence economy embodies traditional values and beliefs, sub
AG Anth the comprehensive, holistic, and temporal study of humans and their interaction with the environment. Emphasis on food production on a global scale to improve world wide production of food and fiber.
Ethnoecology the study of how all different people utilize and interpret their knowledge of their environmental domain- parallel to biological sciences and ecology.
Green revolution bringing western industrial agriculture to the third world in order to feed the starving masses. With the idea that peasants are rational decision makers so all they need is some modern inputs to accelerate crop yield.
Upside to green revolution debatable increase in production
Downside to green revolution uneven development and increased social stratification. Detrimental to the ecology of the farm land.
Anthropology OF agriculture describes agricultural societies in terms of evolutionary types, level of energy use, intensification, and comparative environmental adaptations
Anthropology IN agriculture the use of anthropological methods to improve the methods of and surrounding agriculture
Reasons for maintaining heirloom vegetables in Appalachia and the Sierra Madre although utilitarian reasons for agrobiodiversity maintenance are important, cultural reasons for the persistence of folk crop varieties may be more important from the perspective of farmers themselves
Characteristics of Sustainable agriculture focus on environmentally friendly and culturally sensitive systems of agriculture characterized by high biological diversity, local organic inputs, horizontal and fair trade markets, and human rights. Allows local farmers to maintain traditional lifestyl
Neolithic revolution domestication of plants and animals, in 7 different, independent places over thousands of years
7 places where food production was independently invented Middle East, South China, North China, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Mexico, South Central Andes, and the Eastern US
Middle East domesticated wheat, barley, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs earliest date: 10,000
South China domesticated rice, water buffalo, dogs, pigs earliest date: 8,500-6,500
North China domesticated millet, dogs, pigs, chickens earliest date: 7,500
Sub-Saharan Africa domesticated sorghum, pearl millet, African rice earliest date: 4,000
Central Mexico domesticated maize, beans, squash, dogs, turkeys earliest date: 4,700
South Central Andes domesticated potato, quinoa, beans, camelids, guinea pigs earliest date: 4,500
Eastern US domesticated goosefoot, marsh elder, sunflower, squash earliest date: 4,500
Domestication the process by which humans gain control over the reproduction of certain plants and animal species-through genetic modification, through selective breeding, ordering of environments.
Old world domestication domestication of animals (sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, horses, water buffalo, dogs, chickens), staple crops (wheat, millet, sorghum, rice, barley), and lentils, peas, and chickpeas Resulted in: Genetic modifications, Population growth, Spread of farming t
New world domestication domestication of animals (llamas, dogs, alpacas, turkeys, and guinea pigs), caloric staple crops (maize, potatoes, manioc [cassava]), and beans, squash, goosefoot, marsh elder, sunflower, and quinoa. Transition from: Nomadic foraging to the beginnings of
Sedentism the stabilization of people groups, stay in one area. Result of intensive agriculture where large farm areas form and yield crops for long periods of time. A consequence of a particular mode of obtaining food- agriculture.
Natufians widespread Middle Eastern culture dated between 12,500 and 10,500 b.p.; subsisted on intensive wild cereal collecting and gazelle hunting and had year-round villages.
Domestication in Fertile Crescent vs Mexico Mexico demonstrated new world domestication tactics, while the fertile crescent used old world.
Redistribution major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states, and some states with managed economies—when goods, services, or their equivalent move from the local level to a center
managed economies when goods, services, or their equivalent move from the local level to a center
Reciprocity one of the three principles of exchange; governs exchange between social equals; major exchange mode in band and tribal societies.
Generalized Exchange exchange between closely related individuals. An exchange is made with no expectation of anything in return
Balanced Exchange an exchange between people who are more distantly related that are members of the same band or household.
Negative Exchange an exchange with someone outside or on the fringe of their social systems. A way of establishing friendly relations with outsiders. Involves the attempt to get something for as little as possible in return, even if one must be dishonest or cheat.
Band basic unit of social organization among foragers. A band includes fewer than 100 people; often splits up seasonably
Tribe based on horticulture or pastorilism. Socioeconomic stratification and central rule are absent, no means of enforcing political decisions
Chiefdom intermediate between tribe and the state; kin based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure
State based on a central government and socioeconomic stratification- a division of society into classes
Egalitarian society most typically found among hunter-gatherers; lacks status distinctions except for those based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements
Stratified class structured; stratified societies have marked differences in wealth, prestige, and power between social classes
Horticulture vs. agriculture both nonindustrial; horticulture is low tech, low maintenance where land may lay fallow for a long period of time; agriculture requires continuous and intensive use of land and labor
Minute men activist organization started in april 2005; monitor the us-Mexican border’s flow of illegal immigrants—“citizens neighborhood watch” over our border
Humane borders offers water stations in high moving areas along the border- have 70 stations
Immigration policy deals with the transit of persons across its borders
Enforcement policy makes rules for enforcing immigration rules
Globalization accelerating interdependence of nations in world systems linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems; the interconnectedness of the world, every aspect
History of globalization term first used in the 1980’s= goes back to the silk road and slave trade—officially began during the Enclosure Movement in England (1750-1860: privatization of land)
Economic globalization perpetual economic growth premised of free trade --rapid world growth, buying and selling of services—requires little to no resources. Seen as a solution to global poverty and environmental degradation; growth has risen drastically but quality of living
Free Trade wages and production conditions determined by market forces; reduction or elimination of tariffs (taxes on imported goods)
Players in free trade The corporation, IMF (international monetary fund), World bank, WTO (world trade organization) and GATT (general agreement on tariffs and trade)[became the WTO in 1994], NAFTA (north American free trade agreement)
Fair Trade producers guarantee a fair/just wage
Global and US wealth distribution concentrated in north America, western Europe, and Australia
Article 27 Mexican government changed its constitution to gain the support of US and Canada for NAFTA
Ejido privatizes communal agricultural lands
IMF/World Bank/ Bretton Woods 1944- resulted in privatization; countries receiving aid money (SAPs) must meet the set conditions: reduce public spending, open markets for foreign imports, produce domestic goods for export
SAPs structural adjustment programs
Colonialism the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
Development- (blank)
Colonies Settled colonies or Extractive colonies: Majority of colonies Natural resources Agricultural products
Progress/white man’s burdon the notion that all human societies go through the same stages, savagery, barbarism, and civilization, but some have “progressed” more than others. Cultural roots of progress go back to the enlightenment, missionization- bringing “progress” to other coun
Cultural imperialism when acculturation continues against the wishes and interests of the less powerful culture
Neo colonialism modern day colonization
Environmental/ecological ANTH human-environment interaction through space and time
Historical ecology interdisciplinary study of: Landscape change through space and time, where: “landscape”= the spatial manifestation of relations between humans and their environment
“landscape” the spatial manifestation of relations between humans and their environment
Political ecology linkage between power and social/environmental conditions.—those in power shape the ways in which we all interact with our environment (to some degree) and therefore the environment itself.
Conservations of what biological diversity, ecological processes, and others.
“Wilderness” anglo construct, what westerners deem as the wild
Yellowstone worlds first nat’l park: 1872- forced removal of indigenous inhabitants, but we will never know how they impacted the wilderness
Sarengeti same as Yellowstone, only in Africa
Masai Kenyan warrior tribe, semi-nomadic: “wilderness” and its people
Community-based conservation (CBC) encourage and empower locals to share in decision making; maintain local access to natural resources.
CAMPFIRE communal areas management program for indigenous resources—Zimbabwe (1980s) Anthropology links conservation to social development and uses ethnography
ICDP integrated conservation and development program
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Created by: amaley