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Med. term 1-5

Ch. 1-5 Medical Terms

prefix -the beginning of some words -one letter or a group of letters -precedes a root to give it a different meaning -can have more than one meaning -never requires a combining vowel -can have two prefixes in an occasional medical term
root the foundation of the rood that provides its meaning
combining vowel vowel that joins a root to another root or to a suffix
combining form combination of a root and a combining vowel
suffix the ending of some words
ROOT functions -the constant unchanging foundation of a medical term -usually of greek or latin origin -one or more is found in most medical terms
combining vowel functions -has no meaning of its own -joins a root to another root -joins root to suffix -makes word easier to pronounce -"o" the most common combining vowel, next is "a"
combining form functions -combines a root and a combining vowel -can be attached to another root or combining form -can precede a suffix
combining form examples 1. cardi/o 2. gynec/o 3. respir/a
patient (greek/latin form) an old english term meaning to suffer or undergo; the term refers to a person who is under medical or surgical treatment
medical (greek/latin form) from a latin term meaning to heal; it means pertaining to the practice of medicine
breath (greek/latin form) an old english word meaning a single cycle of inhaling and exhaling
mucus (greek/latin form) a latin word for a clear sticky secretion
knee (greek/latin form) an old english word meaning an angular shape; today its referred to the joint (a latin word for junction) between the upper and lower leg
quadrant (greek/latin form) a latin word meaning a quarter. the abdomen is divided into four quadrants by horizontal and vertical planes that intersect at the umbilicus, which is a latin word for navel or belly button.
record (greek/latin form) a latin word meaning to remember. A medical record is a written account of a patient's medical history
care (greek/latin form) an old english word meaning to worry. when you care for your patients you look after them and are concerned about them.
specialist (greek/latin form) a latin word meaning of a given species. a specialist devotes professional attention to a particular subject area.
apex (greek/latin form) a latin word meaning tip or summit (as in mount everest); the apex of the heart is the downward pointing tip of the cone-shaped heart.
patent (greek/latin form) a latin word meaning open or exposed; a patent blood vessel is open to the circulation of free flowing blood.
toxin (greek/latin form) a greek word meaning poison; a toxin is a poisonous substance formed by a cell, such as a bacterium.
lymph (greek/latin form) a latin word meaning clear spring water; lymph is a clear, shimmering fluid collected from the body tissues
breech (greek/latin form) an old english word meaning buttocks; in obstetrics, a fetus is in a breech presentation when the buttocks, rather than the head, are the presenting part of delivery.
terms that are alike: illum and illeum - a bone in the pelvis - a segment of the small intestine
terms that are alike: ureter and urethra - the tube from the kidney to the bladder - the tube from the bladder from the outside
terms that are alike: trapezius and trapezium - a muscle in the back - a bone in the wrist
terms that are alike: malleus and malleolus - a small bone in the middle ear - a bony protuberance at the ankle
terms that are alike: neurology and urology -the study of diseases of the nervous system -the study of diseases of the kidney and bladder
diagnostic suffix: -oma hematoma -tumor, mass - the collection of blood in a tissue
diagnostic suffix: -uria hematuria -urine -blood in the urine
diagnostic suffix: -dialysis hemodialysis -to separate - removal of excess waste materials from blood
diagnostic suffix: -chezia hematochezia -pass a stool -passage of a bloody stool
diagnostic suffix: -crit hematocrit -to separate -percentage of red blood cells in the blood
diagnostic suffix: -gram cardiogram - record -record derived from the heart
diagnostic suffix: -graph cardiograph -instrument for recording -instrument for recording the heart
diagnostic suffix: -lysis hemolysis -destruction -destruction of red blood cells
diagnostic suffix: -philia hemophilia -attraction -an inherited blood disease
diagnostic suffix: -ptysis hemoptysis -spit -cough up bloody sputum
diagnostic suffix: -rrhage hemorrhage -to flow profusely -to bleed profusely
diagnostic suffix: -rrhoid hemorrhoid -to flow - painful anal swelling of venous blood
surgical suffix: -centesis arthrocentesis -surgical puncture -surgical puncture of a joint space with a needle
surgical suffix: -desis arthrodesis -fixation -surgical binding together of the bones of a joint
surgical suffix: -ectomy appendectomy -surgical removal -surgical removal of appendix
surgical suffix: -plasty rhinoplasty -surgical repair -surgical repair of nose
surgical suffix: -rrhaphy herniorrhapy -surgical structure -surgical structure of a hernia
surgical suffix: -stomy tracheostomy -surgical formation of an opening -surgical formation of an artificial opening into the trachea into which a tube is inserted
surgical suffix: -tomy tracheotomy -surgical incision -surgical incision into the trachea to enable a tracheostomy to be inserted
surgical suffix: -tripsy lithotripsy -crushing -crushing of a stone ex: in the ureters
pathological suffix: -algia arthralgia -pain -pain in the joints
pathological suffix: -ectasis bronchiectasis -dilation -chronic dilation of bronchi
pathological suffix: -edema lymphedema -accumulation of fluid and tissues -swelling in tissues as a result of obstruction of lymphatic vessels
pathological suffix: -emesis hematemesis -vomiting -vomiting of blood
pathological suffix: -genesis osteogenesis -form, produce -formation of new bone
pathological suffix: -itis cystitis -inflammation -inflammation of urinary bladder
pathological suffix: -oma hematoma -tumor, mass -mass of blood leaked outside blood vessels into tissues
pathological suffix: -osis cyanosis -abnormal condition -dark blue coloration of blood due to lack of oxygen
pathological suffix: -pathy neuropathy -disease -any disease of the nervous system
pathological suffix: -penia erythropenia -deficiency or lack of -decrease of red blood cells
pathological suffix: -phobia agoraphobia -fear of -an unfounded fear of public places that arouses a state of panic
pathological suffix: -stenosis arteriostenosis -narrowing -abnormal narrowing of an artery
adjectival suffixes: -ac, -ary, -ior, -al, -ale, -alis, -ar, -aris, -atic, -active, -eal, -ent, -etic, -ial, -ic, -lca, -lcal, -lne, -iosum, -ious, -istic, -ius, -nic, -ous, -tic, -tiz, -tous, -us pertaining to
noun suffix: -iatry psychiatry -treatments, medical specialty -diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
noun suffix: -ician pediatrician -expert, specialist -medical specialist in childrens development and disorders
noun suffix: -icle ossicle -small, minute -small bone, relating to the three small bones in the middle ear
noun suffix: -ist dentist -expert, specialist -specialist in disorders of the orofacial complex
noun suffix: -istry dentristy -medical speciality -speciality in disorders of the orofacial complex
noun suffix: -ole arteriole -small minute -small artery
noun suffix: -ule venule -small, minute -small vein
position prefix: ante- antevert -before, forward -to tilt forward, as a uterus can
position prefix: anti- antibiotic -against -an agent that can destroy bacteria in other microorganisms
position prefix: circum- circumcision -around -to cut around the penis to remove the foreskin
position prefix: endo- endocrine -inside, inner -a gland that secretes directly into the blood
position prefix: epi- epidermis -above, over, upon -top layer of skin
position prefix: exo- exocrine -outside, outward -a gland that excretes outwardly through ducts
position prefix: hyper- hypertrophy -above, excessive -increase in size
position prefix: hypo- hypodermis -below -tissue layer below the top layer of the skin
position prefix: inter- intercostal -between -space between two ribs
position prefix: intra- intradermal -inside, within -within the skin
position prefix: para- paranoid -adjacent, alongside -having delusions of persecution
position prefix: peri- perinatal -around -around the time of birth
position prefix: post- postnatal -after -after the time of birth
position prefix: pre- prenatal -before -before the time of birth
position prefix: retro- retrovert -backward -to tilt backward, as a uterus can
position prefix: supra- suprapubic -above, excessive -above the pubic bone
position prefix: trans- transdermal -across, through -going across or through the skin
position prefix: ultra- ultrasound -higher, beyond -very high-frequency sound waves
measurement prefix: bi- bilateral -two, twice, double - on two sides of the body
measurement prefix: brady- bradycardia -slow -slow heart rate
measurement prefix: di- diplegia -two -paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body
measurement prefix: eu- eupnea -normal -normal breathing
measurement prefix: hemi- hemiparasis -half -weakness of one side of the body
measurement prefix: macro- macrocyte -large -large red blood cell
measurement prefix: micro- microcyte -small -small red blood cell
measurement prefix: mono- monocyte -single, one -white blood cell with a single nucleus
measurement prefix: multi- multipara -many -a woman who has given birth at least twice
measurement prefix: pan- pancytopenia -all -deficiency of all types of blood cells
measurement prefix: poly- polyuria -excessive -excessive production of urine
measurement prefix: primi- primipara -first -a woman who has given birth for the first time
measurement prefix: quadri- quadriplegia -four -paralysis of all four limbs
measurement prefix: tachy- tachycardia -rapid -rapid heart rate
measurement prefix: tri- tricuspid -three -having three points, a tricuspid heart valve has three flaps
measurement prefix: uni- unipolar -single, one -depression
directional prefix: ab- abduction -away from -action of moving away from the midline
directional prefix: ad- adduction -towards -action of moving toward midline
directional prefix: ante- antevert -coming before, in front of -to tilt foward
directional prefix: sub- subdural -under -in the space under the dura mater
directional prefix: syn- synapse - coming together -junction between two nerve cells
singular and plural endings: -a -ae -axilla -axillae
singular and plural endings: -ax -aces -thorax -thoraces
singular and plural endings: -en -ina -lumen -lumina
singular and plural endings: -ex -ices -cortex cortices
singular and plural endings: -is -es -diagnosis -diagnoses
singular and plural endings: -is -ides -epididymis -epididymides
singular and plural endings: -ix -ices -appendix -appendices
singular and plural endings: -ma -mata -carcinoma -carcinomata
singular and plural endings: -on -a -ganglion -ganglia
singular and plural endings: -um -a -septum -septa
singular and plural endings: -us -era -viscus -viscera
singular and plural endings: -us -i -villus -villi
singular and plural endings: -us -ora -corpus -corpora
singular and plural endings: -ex -ges -phalanx -phalanges
singular and plural endings: -y -ies -ovary -ovaries
singular and plural endings: -yx -ices -calyx -calices
word analysis and definition: abdomen abdominal root: (abdomin-abdomen) -the part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis -pertaining to the abdomen
word analysis and definition: colic colicky root: (col-colon) -pertaining to the colon -pain in the colon
word analysis and definition: costovertebral root: (cost/o- rib) (vertebr- spine) -pertaining to the rib and spine
word analysis and definition: hypertension hypotension root: (tens- pressure) -persistent high arterial blood pressure -persistent low arterial blood pressure
word analysis and definition: radiopaque root: (radi/o-radiation) -impenetrable by x-rays or other forms of radiation
word analysis and definition: ureter -tube that connects the kidney to urinary bladder
word analysis and definition: urethra -canal leading from the urinary bladder to the outside
atom -a small unit of matter
blastocyst root: (blast/o- immature cell) -first two weeks of the developing embryo
cell cellular cytology root: (cellul- small cell) root: (cyt/o- cell) -smallest unit capable of independent existence -pertaining to a cell -study of cell
fertilization fertilize root: (fertiliz- to bear) -union of male sperm and female egg
holistic root: (holist- whole) -pertaining to the care of the whole person in physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions.
molecule molecular root: (molec- mass) -very small particle consisting of two or more atoms held tightly together
oocyte root: (cyte- cell) (o/o-egg) -female egg cell
organ organelle root: (organ-organ) -structure with specific functions in a body system -part of a cell having a specialized function(s)
tissue -collection of similar cells
vitro in vitro fertilization (IVF) -process of combining sperm and egg in a laboratory dish and placing resulting embryos inside a uterus
zygote -cell resulting from the union of the sperm and egg
basic function of life: -manufacture of proteins and lipids -production and use of energy -communication with other cells -replication of DNA -reproduction
organelle examples: nucleolus, nucleus (the largest organelle), E.R., ribosomes, golgi complex or apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria
chromatin root: (chromat-color) -substance composed of DNA that forms chromosomes during cell division
cytoplasm -clear, gelatinous substance that forms the substance of a cell except for the nucleus
chromosome root: (chrom/o- color) -body in the nucleus that contains DNA and genes
DNA -source of hereditary characterisitcs found in chromosomes
electrolyte root: (electr/o- electric) -substance that, when dissolved in a suitable medium, forms electrically charged particles
hormone hormonal -chemical formed in one tissue or organ and carried by the blood to stimulate or inhibit or function of another tissue or organ
intracellular root: (cellul- small cell) -within the cell
membrane membranous -thin layer of tissue covering a structure or cavity
metabolism metabolic root: (metabol- change) -the constantly changing physical and chemical processes occurring in the cell -pertaining to metabolism
mitochondrion mitochondria root: (mit/o- thread) (chondr/o- cartilage, rib, granule) -organelle that generates, stores, and releases energy for cell activities
nucleus nuclear root: (nucle- nucleus) -functional center of cell structure
nucleolus root: (nucle/o- nucleus) -small mass within the nucleus
steroid steroidal root: (ster- solid) -large family of chemical substances found in many drugs, hormones, and body components
anabollism root: (anabol-build up) -the build up of complex substances in the cell form simpler ones as a part of metabolism
carbohydrates root: (carb/o- carbon) (hydr- water) -a group of organic food compounds that includes sugars, starch, glycogen, and cellulose
catabolism root: (catabol- breakdown) - breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones as a part of metabolism
lysosome root: (lys/o- decompose) -enzyme that digest foreign material and worn out cell components
protein root: (prot/e- first) -class of food substances based on amino acids
ribosomes root: (rib/o- like a rib) -structure in the cell that assembles amino acids into proteins
connective tissue -bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat -distributed throughout body; for example, in blood, bone, cartilidge, and fat
epithelial tissue -protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete -cover body surface, cover and line internal organs, composed glands
muscle tissue -movement -attached to bones, and the walls of hollow internal organs, and in the heart
nervous tissue -transmit impulses for coordination, sensory reception, motor actions -brain, spinal cord, nerves
anterior root: (anter- before, front part) - front surface of body; situated in front
collateral root: (later- side) -situated at the side; having an excessory function
coordinate coordination root: (ordin- arrange) -to bring together different structures into a harmonious function -the harmonious function of interrelated strucutres
cruciate -shaped like a cross
epithelium epithelial root: (thel/i- nipple) -tissue that covers surfaces or lines cavities -pertaining to epithelium
excrete excretion -to pass waste products of metabolism out of the body -removal of waste products of metabolism out of the body
graft -transplantation of living tissue
histology histologist root: (hist/o- tissue) -structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs -specialist in the structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs
ligament - band of fibrous tissue connecting two structures
medial - near to the middle of body
meniscus menisci -disc of connective tissue cartilage between the bones of a joint; for example in the knee joint
muscle - a tissue consisting of contractile cells
patella -thin, circular bone in front of the knee joint that is embedded in the patellar tendon, also called the knee cap.
secrete secretion -to produce a chemical substance in a cell and release it from the cell
articulate articulation -to form a joint so as to allow movement -joint formed to allow movement
capsule capsular root: (caps- box) -fibrous tissue layer surrounding a joint or some other structure
cartilage -nonvascular form, connective tissue found mostly in joints
collagen root: (coll/a- glue) -major protein of connective tissue, cartilage and bone
fibroblast root: (blast- germ cell) (fibr/o- fiber) -cell that forms collagen fibers
matrix -substance that surrounds cells, manufactured by cells, and holds them together
nutrient root: nutri- nourish -a substance and food required for normal physiologic function
osteoblast osteoclast osteocyte root: (blast- germ cell) (oste/o- bone) -bone-forming cell -bone-removing cell -bone-maintaining cell
periosteum root: (oste- bone) -fibrous membrane covering the bone
synovial root: (ov/i- egg) -pertaining to synovial fluid and synovial membrane
tendon -fibrous band that connects muscle to bone
organ systems: integumentary -skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands -protect tissues, regulate body temp., support sensory receptors
organ systems: skeletal -bones, ligaments, cartilages, tendons -provide framework, protect soft tissues, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, and store inorganic salts
organ systems: muscular -muscles -cause movements, maintain posture, produce body heat
organ systems: nervous -brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs -detect changes, receive and interpret sensory info., stimulate muscle and glands
organ systems: endocrine -glands that secrete hormones; pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal, thymus -control metabolic activities of organs and structures
organ systems: cardiovascular -heart, blood cells -move blood and transport substances throughout the body
organ systems: lymphatic -lymph vessels and nodes, thymus, spleen -return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend body against infection
organ systems: digestive -mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines -receive, break down, and absorb food, eliminate unabsorbed material
organ systems: respiratory -nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs -control intake and output of air, exchange gases between air and blood
organ systems: urinary -kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra -remove waste from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine
organ systems: reproductive (male) -male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis -produce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract, secrete male hormones
organ systems: reproductive (female -female: ovaries, uterine, (fallopian) tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva - produce and maintain egg cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo, function in birth process, secrete female hormones
homeostasis root: (home/o- the same) -stability or equilibrium of a system or the body's internal environment
hypertrophy root: (trophy- development) -increase in size, but not in number, of an individual tissue element
integrate integration root: (integr- whole) -to bring together into a complete inharmonious whole
organ -structure with specific functions in a body system
parkinson disease -disease of muscular rigidity, tremors, and a mask-like facial expression
posture -the carriage of the body as a whole and the position of the limbs
septicemia root: (septic- infected) -microorganisms circulating in and infecting the blood (blood poisoning)
spastic spasticity root: (spast- tight) -increase muscle tone on movement with exaggeration of the tendon reflexes -the condition or state of increased muscle tone on movement
tracheostomy root: (trache/o- windpipe) -the incision into the windpipe, usually so that a tube can be inserted to assist breathing
urinary root: (urin- urine) - pertaining to urine
anatomy anatomic root: (tom- section) -study of structure of the human body -pertaining to anatomy
anterior root: (anter- coming before) -front surface of body situated in front
caudal root: (caud- tale) -pertaining to or near to the tale
cephalic root: (cephal- head) -pertaining to or near to the head
coronal root: (coron- crown) -pertaining to the vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
distal root: (dist- away from center) -situated away from the center of the body
dorsal root: (dors- back) -pertaining to the back or situated behind
frontal root: (front- front) -in front; relating to the anterior part of the body
inferior root: (infer- below) -situated below
posterior root: (poster- coming behind) -pertaining to the back surface of the body; situated behind
prone -lying face down, flat on your abdomen
proximal root: (proxim- nearest) -situated nearest center of the body
sagittal root: (sagitt- arrow) -pertaining to the vertical plane through the body, dividing into left and right portions
superior root: (super- above) -situated above
supine -lying face up, flat on your spine
transverse -pertaining to the horizontal plane, dividing the body into upper and lower portions
ventral root: ventr- belly -pertaining to the abdomen or situated near the surface of the abdomen
cranial cavity contains the brain within the skull
thoracic cavity contains the heart, lungs, thymus glad, trachea, and esophagus, as well as numerous blood vessels and nerves
abdominal cavity is separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm and contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys
pelvic cavity surrounded by pelvic bones and contains the urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, the rectum, the anus, and the internal reproductive organs
spinal cavity contains the spinal cord
abdominopelvic cavity abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity collectively
cavity cavities hollow space or body compartment
diaphragm the musculomembranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
epigastric epigastrium root: (gastr/i-stomach) -pertaining to the abdominal region above the stomach -abdominal region above the stomach
hypogastric -pertaining to the abdominal region below the stomach
quadrant one-quarter of a circle
umbilical umbilicus root: (umbilic- belly button) -pertaining to or around the umbilicus or the center of the abdomen
alimentary canal -mouth, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine, pharynx, and stomach root: (aliment-nourishment) -pertaining to the digestive tract
accessory organs of digestion include: teeth, salivary glands, gallbladder, tongue, liver, and pancreas
bariatric root: (bari- weight) -treatment of obesity
digestion digestive root: (digest- to break down) -breakdown of food into elements suitable for cell metabolism -pertaining to digestion
esophagus -tube linking pharynx and stomach
gastric root: (gast/r- stomach) -pertaining to the stomach
gastroenterology gastroenterologist gastrointestinal root: (enter/o- intestine) -medical speciality of the stomach and intestines -medical specialist in gastroenterology -pertaining to the stomach and intestines
intestines intestinal root: (intestin- intestin or gut) -the digestive tube from stomach to anus
laparoscopy laparoscope laparscopic root: (lapar/o- abdomen in general) -examination of the contents of the abdomen using and endoscope -instrument used for viewing the abdominal contents -pertaining to a larparoscopy
lymph lymphatic root: (lymph- lymph) -a clear fluid collected from tissues and transported by vessels to venous circulation -pertaining to lymph
mouth external opening of a cavity or canal
Roux-en-Y surgical procedure to reduce the size of the stomach
transcript transcription transcriptionist root: (script- writing, thing copied) -an exact copy or reproduction -the action of making a copy of dictated material -one who makes a copy of dictated material
propulsion the mechanical movement of food from the mouth to the anus
absorption absorb uptake of nutrients and water by cells in the GI tract
amylase root: (amyl- starch) -one of a group of enzymes that break down starch
bolus single mass of substance
deglutition root: deglutit- to swallow -the act of swallowing
elimination root: (elimin- throw away) -removal of waste material from the digestive tract
ingestion root: (ingest- carry in) -intake of food, either by mouth or through a nasogastric tube
lipase root: (lip-fat) enzyme that breaks down fat
nasogastric root: (nas/o- nose) -pertaining to nose and stomach
parastalsis root: stalsis- constrict -waves of alternate contraction and relaxation of elementary canal wall to move food along the digestive tract
protease root: prot/e-protein) -group of enzymes that break down protein
secrete secretion -to release or give off, as substances produced by cells
segment segmental root: (segment- section) -section of an organ or structure -pertaining to a segment
abbreviations CMA- certified medical assistant ESR- erythocyte sedimentation rate SSA- syndrome antibodies A SSB-syndrome antibodies B WBS-white blood cell
buccinator root: (buccin- the cheek) -the muscle in the cheek
enzyme root: (zyne- fermenting, enzyme) -protein that induces changes in other substances
gingivitis root: (gingiv- gums) -inflammation of the gums
masticate mastication root: (mastic- chew) - to chew
oral root: (or- mouth) pertaining to the mouth
palate -roof of the mouth
papilla papillae -any small projection
Sjogren syndrome autoimmune disease that attacks the glands that produce saliva and tears
taste sensation from chemicals on the taste buds
tongue mobile muscle mass in mouth; bears the taste buds
ulcer and ulceration root: (ulcer- meaning a sore) -erosion of an area of skin or mucosa -formation of an ulcer
uvula fleshy projection of the soft palate
bicuspid (also called premolar) root: (cusp- point) -having two points; a bicuspid (premolar) tooth has two points
crown -part of the tooth above the gum
cuspid -tooth with one point
dentin (dentine) root: (dent-tooth) -dense, ivory-like substance located under the enamel in the tooth
enamel -hard substance covering a tooth
incisor chisel-shaped tooth
lysozyme root: (lys/o- dissolve) -enzyme that dissolves the cells walls of bacteria
molar one of six teeth in each jaw that grind food
parotid root: (ot- ear) -parotid gland is the salivary gland beside the ear
pulp dental pulp is the connective tissue in the cavity in the center of the tooth
root fundamental or beginning part of the structure
saliva salivary root: (saliv- saliva) -secretion in mouth from salivary glands
sublingual root: (lingu- tongue) -underneath the tongue
submandibular root: (mandibul- the jaw) -underneath the mandible
symptom symptomatic -departure from the normal experienced by a patient -pertaining to the symptoms of a disease
aphthous ulcer painful small oral ulcer
canker/ canker sore nonmedical term for aphthous ulcer
caries bacterial destruction of teeth
gingiva gingival gingivitis gingivectomy -tissue surrounding teeth and covering the jaw -pertaining to the gums -inflammation of the gums -surgical removal of diseased gum tissue
glossodynia root: (gloss/o- tongue) -painful, burning of tongue
halitosis root: (halit- breath) -bad odor of breath
leukoplakia root: (leuk/o- white) (plak- plate, plaque) -white patch on oral mucous membrane, often precancerous
periodontal periodontics periodontist periodontitis root: (odont- tooth) -around a tooth -branch of dentistry specializing in disorders around the teeth -specialist in periodontics -inflammation of tissues around tooth
plaque patch of abnormal tissue
pyorrhea root: (py/o-pus) purulent discharge
tartar (dental calculus calcified deposit at gingival margin of teeth
thrush infection with candida albicans
deglutition the act of swallowing
dysphagia root: (phagia- swallowing) -difficulty in swallowing
emesis hematemesis root: (eme-to vomit) (hemat-blood) -vomiting -vomiting of red blood
epiglottis root: (glottis- windpipe) -leaf-shaped plate of cartilage that shuts off larynx during swallowing
esophagus esophageal esophagitis -tube linking pharynx and stomach -pertaining to the esophagus -inflammation of the lining of esophagus
hernia herniorrhaphy herniate root: (herni/o- hernia) -protusion of a structure through the tissue that normally contains it -repair of a hernia -to protrude
hiatus hiatal root: (hiat- aperture) -an opening through a structure -pertaining to an opening through a structure
larynx -organ of voice production
nasopharynx root: (nas/o-nose) (pharynx-throat) -region of the pharynx at the back of the nose and above the soft palate
oropharynx root: (or/o-mouth) -region at back of mouth between soft palate and the tip of the epiglottis
pharynx air tube from the back of the nose to the larynx
postprandial root: (prand-meal) following a meal
relfux root: (flux-flow) -backward flow
regurgitation root: (gurgit-flood) -expelling contents of the stomach into the mouth, short of vomitting
trachea -air tube from larynx to the bronchi
varix varices varicose -dilated, tortuous vein -characterized by or affected with varices
chyme -semifluid, partially digested food passed from the stomach into the duodenum
dehydration (hydr- water) -process of losing body water
duodenum duodenal (duoden-latin for twelve) -first part of small intestine; approx. 12- finger breadths (9-10 inches) in length -pertaining to the duodenum
fundus fundic (fund-bottom) -the portion of the stomach that lies above the entrance of the esophagus -pertaining to the fundus
gastrin -hormones secreted in the stomach that stimulates secretion of HCL and increases gastric motility
hydrochloric acid (HCL) (chlor-green) -the acid of gastric juice
intrinsic factor (intrins- on the inside) (factor-maker) -substance secreted by the stomach that is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B-12
malabsorption (absorpt- to swallow) -inadequate gastrointestinal absorption of nutrients
mucus mucous mucin (muc-mucus) -sticky secretion of cells in mucous membranes -relation to mucus or mucosa -protein element of mucus
pepsin pepsinogen (pepsin/o-pepsin) -enzyme produceded by stomach that breaks down protein -enzyme converted by HCL in stomach to pepsin
pylorus pyloric (pylor-gate) -exit area of the stomach, proximal to the duodenum -pertaining to pylorus
anorexia (orex- appetite) -severe lack of appetite; or an aversion to food
antacid agent that neutralizes acidity
dyspepsia (peps-digestion) -"upset stomach," epigastric pain, nausea, gas
erosion -a shallow ulcer in a lining of a structure
gastritis inflammation of the lining of the stomach
gastroesophageal pertaining to the stomach and esophagus
gastroscope endoscope for examining the inside of a stomach
peptic (pept- digest) -relating to the stomach and duodenum
perforation (perforat-bore through) -erosion that progresses to become a hole through the wall of a structure
proton pump inhibitor (PPI) (proton-first) (inhibit-repress) -agent that blocks production of gastric acid
resection resect (sect- cut off) -removal of a specific part of an organ or structure
vagus tenth (X) cranial nerve; supplies many different organs throughout body
cecum blind pouch that is the first part of the large intestine
ileum ileocecal (ile/o-ilium) (cec-cecum) -third portion of the small intestine -pertaining to the junction of the ileum and cecum
jejunum jejunal segment of small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum where most of the nutrients are absorbed
mesentary mesentric root: (entary- intestine) -a double layer of peritoneum enclosing the abdominal viscera -pertaining to the mesentary
mucosa mucosal -lining of tubular structure -pertaining to the mucosa
muscularis the muscular layer of a hollow organ or tube
omentum omental -membrane that drapes over intestines -pertaining to the omentum
pancreas -lobulated gland, the head of which is tucked into the curve of the duodenum
peritoneum peritoneal membrane that lines the abdominal cavity -
plica plicae fold in the mucous membrane
serosa serosal -outer most covering of the alimentary tract
submucosa (mucosa- lining of the cavity) -tissue layer underneath the mucosa
villus villi -thin, hairlike projection, particularly of a mucous membrane lining a cavity
viscus (means something sticky) viscera visceral -hollow, walled, internal organ -internal organs, particularly in the abdomen
celiac celiac disease (celi- abdomen) (ease- normal function) -relating to the abdominal cavity -disease caused by a sensitivity to gluten
gastroenteritis -inflammation of the stomach and the intestines
Giardia -parasite that can affect the small intestine
ileus -dynamic or mechanical obstruction of the small intestine
intussusception (suspect- to take up) -the slippage of one part of the bowel inside, another, causing obstruction
bile bile acids biliary -fluid secreted by the liver into the duodenum -steroids synthesized from cholesterol
bilirubin bile pigment formed in the liver from hemoglobin
cholesterol (chol/e-bile) -steroid formed in liver cells; the most abundant steroid in tissues, which circulates in the plasma attached to proteins of different densities
emulsify emulsion (emuls- suspend in a liquid) -break up into very small droplets to suspend in a solution
gallstone (gall-bile) (stone- pebble) -hard mass of cholesterol, calcium, and bilirubin that can be formed in the gallbladder and bile duct
gluconeogenesis (neo-new) -formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources
glycogen the body's principle carbohydrate reserve, stored in the liver and skeletal muscle
hepatic hepatitis (hepat- liver) -pertaining to liver -inflammation of liver
liver body's largest internal organ, located in right upper quadrant of abdomen
Murphy sign Tenderness in the right subcostal area on inspiration, associated with acute cholecystitis
portal vein provisional diagnosis (preliminary diagnosis) (provision- provide) -the vein that carries blood from the intestines to the liver -a temporary diagnosis pending further examination or testing
alanine aminotransferase (ATL) amiotransferase (AST) aspartate (amin/o-nitrogen compound) (tranfer-carry) (aspartate-amino acid) -enzymes that are found in liver cells and leak out into the blood stream when the cells are damaged enabling liver damage to be diagnosed -a salt of aspartic acid
ascites (asc-belly) -accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
cholestatic (stat-standing still) (chol/e-bile) -stopping the flow of bile
cirrhosis (cirrh-yellow) -extensive fibrotic liver disease
hemochromatosis (chromat-color) (hemo-blood) -dangerously high levels of iron in the body with deposition of iron pigments in tissues
phosphatase (phosphat- phosphorus) -enzyme that liberates phosphorus
acinar cells (acin-grape) -enzyme-secreting cells of the pancreas
carboxypeptidase (carboxy-group of organic compounts (peptid-digestion) -enzyme that breaks down protien
disaccharide (sacchar-sugar) -combination of two monosacchrides
endocrine gland (crine-secrete) -a gland that produces an internal or hormonal and secretes into the blood stream
exocrine gland -a gland that secretes outwardly through excretory ducts
fatty acid -acid obtained from the hydrolysis of fats
islet cells -hormones secreting cells of the pancreas
monoglyceride diglyceride triglyceride -fatty substance with a single fatty acid -substance with two fatty acids -subastance with three fatty acids
pancreas pancreatic pancreatitis -lobulated gland the head of which is tucked into the curve of the duodenum -pertaining to the pancreas -inflammation of the pancreas
secretin (secrete-separate) -hormone produced by duodenum to stimulate pancreatic juice
trypsin chymotrypsin (tryps-friction) (chym/o-chyme) -enzyme that breaks down protein -trypsin found in chyme
amino acid (amin/o- nitrogen compound) -the basic building block of a protein
carbohydrate -group of organic food compound that includes sugars, starch. glycogen, cellulose
chyle - a milky fluid that results from the digestion and absorbtion of the fats in the small intestine
lacteal (lact/e-milk) -a lymphatic vessel carrying chyle away from the intestine
lipid -general term for all type of fatty compounds for example cholesterol, triglycerides and fatty acids
mineral (miner-minds) -inorganic compound usually found in earth's crust
protein -class of food substances based on amino acids
celiac celiac disease (abdomen) -relating to abdominal cavity -disease caused by sensitivity to gluten
constipation (constip- press together) -hard, infrequent bowel movements
crohn disease (region enteritis) -inflammatory bowel disease with narrowing and thickening of the terminal small bowel
diarrhea (rrhea- to flow and discharge) -abnormally frequent and loose stool
dysentery (entery- intestine) -disease with diarrhea, bowel spasms, fever, and dehydration
enteroscope enteroscopy -slender, tubular instrument with light source and camera to visualize the digestive tract -the examination of the lining of the digestive tract
gluten insoluble protein found in wheat, barley, and oats
intolerance inability of small intestine to digest and dispose of a particular dietary constituent
lactose lactase (lact- milk) disaccharide found in cow's milk -enzyme that breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose
neuropathy (neuro- nerve) -any disease of the nervous system
anus anal -terminal opening of the digestive tract through which feces are discharged
appendix appendectomy vermiform appendicitis -small blind projection from the pouch of the cecum -surgical removal of the appendix -worm shaped; used as a descriptor for the appendix -inflammation of the appendix
colon colic colitis -the large intestine, extending from the cecum to the rectum -spasmodic, crampy pains in the abdomen -inflammation of the colon
feces fecal defecation defecate (fec- Feces) (de- from, out of) -undigested, waste material discharged from the bowel -pertaining to the feces -evacuation to feces from rectum to anus -process of defecation
flatus flatulence flatulent (flatul- excessive gas) -gas or air expelled through the anus -excessive amount of gas in the stomach and intestines
flexure a bend in the structure
gastrocolic reflex (reflex- bend back) -mass movement of feces in the colon and the desire to defecate caused by taking food into stomach
ileocecal sphincter -band of muscle that encircles the junction of the ileum and cecum
perimeter an edge or border
rectum rectal -terminal part of the colon from the sigmoid to the anal canal -
sigmoid -sigmoid colon is shaped like an "S"
bowel another name for intestine
diverticulum diverticula diverticulosis diverticulitis (diverticul- byroad) -a pouchlike opening or sac from a tubular structure -presence of a number of small pouches in the wall of the larch intestine -inflammation of the diverticula
fissure deep furrow or cleft
fistula abnormal passage
hemorrhoid hemorrhoids hemorrhoidectomy -dilated rectal vein producing painful anal swelling -surgical removal of hemorrhoids
intussusception (suspect- to take up) -the slipping of one part of bowel inside another to cause obstruction
lumen the interior space of a tubelike structure
McBurney point one-third the distance from the anterior superior illiac spine to the umbilicus
metastasis metastases (stasis- placement) -spread of a disease from one part of the body to another
peritoneum peritoneal peritonitis periton/e- stretch over -membrane that lines the abdominal cavity -pertaining to the peritoneum -inflammation of the peritoneum
polyp polyposis polypectomy -mass of tissue that projects into the lumen of the bowel -presence of several polyps -excision of removal of polyp
precancerous lesion from which a cancer can develop
proctitis (proct- anus and rectum) -inflammation of lining of rectum
ulcerative (ulcer-sore) marked by an ulcer or ulcers
anastomosis anastomoses (anastom- joint together) -a surgically made union between two tubular structures
coagulate (coagul- clotting) -form of a clot
endoscope endoscopic endoscopy anoscopy colonoscopy gastroscopy -instrument for examining inside of a tubular or hollow organ -pertaining to use of endoscope -the use of an endoscope -endoscopic examination of the anus -examination of inside of colon by endoscopy -endoscopic examination of the stomach
ileoscopy panendoscopy proctoscopy sigmoidscopy -endoscopic examination of the ileum -examination of inside the esophagus, stomach, upper duodenum -examination of inside of anus and rectum - endoscopic exam of sigmoid colon
enema an injection of fluid into rectum
hematochezia the passage of red, bloody stools
melena the passage of black, tarry stools
occult -not visible on surface
ostomy colostomy ileostomy -surgery to create an artificial opening into a tubular structure -artificial opening from colon to outside of body -artificial opening from ileum to outside of body
stoma -artificial opening
Created by: psaunier