Insiders and Outsiders
|Five Common Concepts of South Asian Religions ||Enlightenment
Love of and attachment to worldly desires
|Enlightenment ||The spiritual goal of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.|
|Reincarnation ||Ongoing rebirth or transmigration into new life form until Enlightenment is reached, then rebirth stops. |
|Dharma ||The beliefs and behaviors that lead to Enlightenment|
|Love of and attachment to worldly desires ||Beliefs and behaviors that lead to Reincarnation. |
|Karma ||The cause and effect Law of Moral Conservation that leads to Reincarnation and ultimately to Enlightenment. |
|Brahman ||The Hindu name for God, the creator of the world. Brahman is impersonal; 1 truth, but many paths to it. |
|Atman ||The soul within the self and all world objects.
All Atman are of the same essence as Brahman.
Separate souls do not exist as in the case of the monotheistic religions of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.|
|Spiritual Goal ||Return Atman to Brahman through reincarnation cycles that end in moksha.|
|Epistemology ||A way of knowing or the study of how the subjective mind can gain knowledge of the outside world.|
|Ontology ||Reality; what actually exists outside the subjective mind's experience of it. |
|Religion ||Transformation in response to perceived ultimacy. |