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*BLHS Personality

PersonalityDefinition
personality an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Ex: distinctiveness and consistancy
free association in psycoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or emarrassing. Ex: painful memories of childhood
psychoanalysis Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. Ex: therapy
unconscious a reservoir of mostly unaccceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Ex: Information processing of which we are unaware.
id contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Ex: pleasure (non-realistic)
ego the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality Ex: realistically satisfying id's (unrealistic pleasure) desires
superego the part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations Ex:the ideal (a person who is virtuous but ironically guilt-ridden)
psychosexual stages childhood stages of developmental (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous
Oedipus complex a boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father EX: Greek legend Oedipus killed his father and married his mother
identification the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into developing superegos EX: a daughter wanting to be just like Mom
fixation a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved Ex: When a child is weaned too early he/she will experience fixation during oral stage
defense mechanism the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality EX: Repression, Regression, Reaction Formation, Projection, Rationalization, Displacement
repression the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness EX: Not remembering the lust for parent of the opposite sex
regression a defense mechanism inwhich an indiviual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated EX: When a child goes to the first day of school may suck his/her thumb
reaction formation defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. EX: "I hate him" becomes "I love him"
projection defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening inpulses by attributing them to others EX: "He doesn't trust me" goes to "I don't trust myself" or "I don't trust him"
rationalization defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions EX: heavy drinkers say they drink with their friends "to be sociable"
displacement defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet EX: Children who fear expressing anger toward parent instead takes it out on a pet
collective unconscious Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our secies' history.
projective test a personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics EX: Roshach, TAT tests
Rorsharch inkblot test the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann roscharch; seeks to indentify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
terror-management theory proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death EX: Writing an essay about dying and the emotions associated with it.
self-actualization According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic pysical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential. EX: Hierarchy of Needs
unconditional positive regard according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. EX: In a good marriage, a close family, we are free to be spontaneous without fearing the loss of others' esteem.
self-concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves EX: "Who am I?"
trait a characteristic pattern of behavior or a dispostion to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports EX: unemotional
personality inventory a questionnaire (true-false or agree-disagree) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) the most widely researched and clinically used of a lll personality tests. Developed to identify emotional disorders.
empirically derived test a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
social-cognitive perspective views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context
reciprocal determinism the interacting influences between personality and enviromental factors
personal control our sense of controlling our enviroment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control detirmine one's fate.
internal locus of control the perception that one controls one's own fate
learned helplessness the hoplessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
spotlight effect overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance performance, and blunders EX: acting as though a spotlight is on you
self-esteem one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias a readiness to percieve oneself favorably
Created by: chelseyr on 2008-04-29



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