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Sensation-Perception

*BLHS Sensation

Sensation and Perceptiondefinition and example
sensation Is the process by which you detect physical energy from your enviroment and encode it as neural signals. EX-feeling a needle prick your finger.
perception The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. EX-knowing that a needle pricking your finger is going to hurt.
bottom- up processing Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information. EX-gives us the ability to detect lines, angles, and colors in a painting
top- down processing information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. EX-when looking at a painting, we pay attention to the aspects of the painting that will give observations meaning
absolute threshold the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a senses 50 percent of the time. EX-detecting light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor
signal detection theory predicts when we will detect weak signals EX- measured as our ratio of "hits" to "false alarms"
subliminal below the threshold. EX- being able to taste an ounce of salt in a 2 liter of juice.
difference threshold This is also called the "just noticeable difference." It is the minimum difference a person can detect between any 2 stimuli 50% of the time. EX-Parents can detect their child's cry among other children's cries
Weber's Law The principle that, to be perceived as different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) EX-If the price of a $1 chocolate bar goes up by 10 cents, shoppers might notice the change
sensory adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. EX-If you are listening to your radio on a set volume for an hour, and someone comes along and turns the volume up by only 2 levels, you will probably not notice the difference
transduction conversion of one form of energy into another. EX-Transforming sights or wounds into neural impulses our brain can interpret.
rods retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond. EX-movie theater/ shadows
cones retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well- lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations EX-sunny, spring day
photoreceptors convert light energy to electrochemical neural impulses. EX-Both rods and cones are the photoreceptors
dark adaptation results from a shift from predominantly cone vision to predominantly rod vision. EX-sudden darkness
audition the sense or act of hearing EX- listening
amplitude the greater the composition, the larger the height of the sound wave and the louder the sound EX-dicibels
sound localization the process by which you determine the location of a sound EX- If your friend calls to you from your left side, your left ear hears a louder sound than your right ear
frequency theory the rate of the neural impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, enabling you to sense its pitch EX-When tuning an instrument...you listen to a device that produces the tone, and then being able to match it with your pitch
conduction deafness is a loss of hearing that results when the eardrum is punctured or any of the ossicles lose their ability to vibrate EX-When hearing aids only help some people.
nerve deafness results from damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory neurons EX-a convential hearing aid being able to restore hearing by amplifying vibrations
somatosensation is a general term for 4 classes of tactile sensations: touch/ pressure, warmth, cold, and pain
kinesthesis is the system that enables you to sense the position and movement of individual parts of your body EX-Nerve endings in your muscles, tendons, and joints
vestibular sense is your sense of equilibrium or body orientation
gustation taste
olfaction smell
optical/ visual illusions are discrepancies between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality EX-Reversible figures
monocular cues are clues about distance based on the image of one eye
binocular cues are clues about distance requiring two eyes
depth perception is the ability to judge the distance of objects EX-Being able to judge how far a car is away from you when driving
schemas are concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information EX-Can account for people's interpretations of UFOs
ESP is the controversial clain that perception can occur apart from sensory input
parapsychology the study of paranormal events EX- telepathy, precognition, telekinesis
Created by: Aerrinn on 2008-04-29



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