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Periodic Table

PT

QuestionAnswer
periodic table an arrangement of known elements based on each elements atomic number
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
a group vertical column found in the periodic table
a group elements in this have similar chemical and physical properties
a group have the same number of valence electrons
valence electrons electrons found in the outermost energy level of an atom
valence electrons electrons involved in chemical reactions
period number represents the number of energy levels an atom has
name of elements found in column 1A alkali metals
name of elements found in column 2A alkaline earth metals
name of elements found in column 3A boron family
name of elements found incolumn 4A carbon family
name of elements found incolumn 5A nitrogen family
name of elements found in column 6A oxygen family
name of elements found in column 7A halogen family
name of elements found in column 8A noble gases
one number of valence electrons for family 1A
a period number represents the number of energy levels an atom has
alkali metals
one electron number of valence electrons for family 1A
two electrons number of valence electrons for family 2A
three electron number of valence electrons for family 3A
four electrons number of valence electrons for family 2A
five electrons number of valence electrons for family 5A
six electrons number of valence electrons for family 6A
seven electrons number of valence electrons for family 7A
eight electrons number of valence electrons for family 8A
plus one oxidation number for family 1A
plus two oxidation number for family 2A
plus three oxidation number for family 3A
plus or minus four oxidation number for family 4A
plus three oxidation number for family 5A
minus two oxidation number for family 6A
minus one oxidation number for family 7A
zero oxidation number for family 8A
metals families IA-3A
nonmetals families 4A-8A
metals malleable
malleable able to pound into different shapes
metals good conductors of electricity and heat
metals give electrons away
nonmetals poor conductor of heat and electricity
nonmetals brittle(break easily)
metals have a shiny appearance
nonmetals have a dull appearance
noble gases chemically inactive (will not normally combine chemically with other elements)
alkali metals are highly reactive metals
halogens are highly reactive nonmetals
metals are ductile (can be pulled into wires)
metals have valence electrons weakly held
nonmetals valence electrons held strongly
increase moving down a column, what happens to atomic size
decrease moving down a column, how strongly valence electrons are held
metalloids having characteristics of metals an nometals
transition metals located in middle section of periodic table
transition metals a given element may have atoms with a number of different oxidation numbers
rule of octet atoms combine with one another in order to fill their outermost energy level or have 8 electrons
nonmetals tend to gain electrons
lanthanoid elements made of soft, malleable metals with high luster and conductivity
actinoid elements radioactive and many are man made
Antoine Lavoisier grouped the known elements into 4 categories---metals, nonmetals, gases and earth
Mendeleev a card game prompted him to classify all known elements
periodic table an arrangement of elements in columns, based on a set of properties that repeat from row to row
What does the period number (1-7) tell you about the structure of an atom? the period number is an indication of the number of energy levels an atom of a given element will have.
What does the group number(IA-8A) tell you about the structure of an atom? the group number tells you the number of electrons found in the outermost energy level of the atom
mercury only metal that is liquid at room temperature
characteristics of metals lustrous, ductile, malleable, conductors of heat and electricity, high melting points,give electrons away, form positive ions
transition elements have the ability to form compound with distinctive colors.
characteristics of nonmetals, dull color, non-malleable, poor conductors of heat and electricity, relatively low melting points, take electrons, and form negative ions.
fluorine the most chemically active nonmetal
How do chemical and physical characteristics vary as one moves across the periodic table from left to right? the elements become less metallic and more nonmetallic in their properties.
Which electrons are responsible for the chemical activity of the atom? valence electrons
What happens to the number of valence electrons as one moves across a period? the number of valence electrons increase as one moves across the period
Why do the elements in a given group have similar chemical activity? They have similar chemical activity because they have the same number of valence electrons.
How does the reactivity of alkali metals change from top to bottom in group IA? reactivity increases from top to bottom
aluminum the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust
noble gases colorless and odorless and extremely nonreactive
In Mendeleev's periodic table, elements with similar properties were grouped how? in the same column
How many periods does the modern periodic table have? 7
What information did Mendeleev have about the elements he organized into a periodic table? Mendeleev knew their relative masses and properties
Why is the periodic table called the "periodic table"? The table is called a periodic table because the properties of the elements repeat at regular intervals from row to row
Why does the number of elements vary from period to period? The number of elements per period varies because the number of orbitals incerease as the energy level increases.
Explain how the atomic mass of an element is affected by the distribution of its isotopes in nature. The atomic mass is a weighted average of the atomic masses of an element's isotopes. The distribution of the isotopes determine how much each isotope affectes the weighted average.
In general, what happens to the reactivity of elements in groups labled A as atomic number increase across a period> Across a period from left to right, metals become less reactive and nonmetals become more reactive.
Why don't the elements with an A group in the periodic table have identical properties? Elements in the same A group don't have identical properties because their valence electrons are in different energy levels.
How many valence electrons would an element with an atomic number of 12 and an atom mass number of 24? 2
How many full energy levels would an element with an atomic number of 12 and an atom mass number of 24? 2
How many energy levels would an element with an atomic number of 12 and an atom mass number of 24? 3
How many electrons would an element with an atomic number of 12 and an atom mass number of 24? 12
How many neutrons would an element with an atomic number of 12 and an atom mass number of 24? 12
How would you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? To calculate the number of neutrons in an atom, subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass number
Why is hydrogen located in a group with reactive metals? hydrogen is placed with other elements that have a single valence electron.
Which group of elements are least reactive? Noble Gases
Why are Noble Gases chemically inactive. Noble gases are chemically inactive due to the fact that all have a full outermost energy level or at least 8 electrons.
Created by: John Whitfield John Whitfield on 2008-04-29



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