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Chapter 2 & 3

Neutron it is neutral located at the center atomic mass - atomic # = # of neutrons
Protons +1 located at the center =Atomic number
Elections -1 very small mass located in orbitals (electron cloud) =Proton
Atomic Nucleus center of atom positive charge
Atomic number Protons
Atomic Mass Protons - Electrons = mass
Valance the valence of an atom or ion is the number of electrons that it can share, give up, or accept from another atom or electron
Cations ions with a positive charge
Anions ions with a negative charge
Ionic Bonding the electrostatic interactions of a cation and an anion
Covalent Bonding sharing of electrons between atoms
Hydrogen Bond -happens between polar molecules -weak attraction between a partially + hydrogen atom in a molecule and partially - atom in a molecule
pH A measurement of free hydrogen ions in a solution
Acid -a substance that dissociates in water to produce both an H+ and an anion -proton donor
Base(Alkaline) -accepts H+ when added to a solution -proton acceptor
pH scale 0-14, 0 being very acidic and 14 being very basic(alkaline), 7 being neutral like water
Blood pH 7.35-7.45
Water Always neutral, + charged hydrogen ions and - charged are produced the dissociation of it
Buffers substance or group of substances that help prevent pH changes
Organic Chemicals those compounds containing carbon atoms
Carbohydrates an organic compound containing hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 2:1
Synthesis put it together
Decomposition take it apart
Dehydration Synthesis one subunit looses an H and the other looses an OH to form water molecules as a new covalent bond is produced
Hydrolysis H is added to subunit and OH is added to another and the chemical bond between them is broken
Lipids Fat like compounds
Fatty Acids long chain of hydrocarbons with carboxylic acid functional group at the end
Monounsaturated Canola, almond, olive oil
Saturated no double bond
unsaturated double bond
Polyunsaturated two or more double bonds
Triacylglycerols -glycerol and 3 fatty acids -long term energy storage -insulation and cushioning
Phospholipids -glycerol, 2 fatty acids and a phosphate -membranes -fatty acids have non polar end
Steroids -four rings of hydrocarboons -"3 honey combs and an outhouse" -hormones and cholesterol
Prostagladins and other Eicosanoids -modified 20 carbon fatty acids that are synthesized as needed from arachidonic acid -communication in nervous system and function in the inflammatory response
Proteins -made of amino acids -catalysts(enzymes),defense,transport(hemoglobins)(on membranes), structural support(hair,skin proteins),cause movement(make up muscle cells), regulation(hormones) and storage, pH homeostasis as buffers
Amino Acids organic compound containing both a carboxyl (-COOH) and an amino (-NH2) group
Peptide bonds hold amino acids together so that a whole protein chain is created -form during dehydration synthesis of amino acids
Enzyme act as organic catalysts=chemicals that speed up but are not consumed by chemical reactions
Enzymes -must be built properly -the active site does catalyzing -be highly specific on what they work on at the active site -denaturation my happen in not in right environment -sometimes need organic helpers
Induced fit Active site changing shape in an enzyme
Organic Helpers -coenzymes -all or parts of vitamins
Co-factors metalic ions such as Mg++, Zn++, or Ca++
Nucleic Acids macromolecules that store and transfer genetic or hereditary information in cells -made of necluotides(ATP-nitrogenous bas, a sugar, and a phosphate group)
DNA -makes proteins such as enzymes -AT,GC -2 stands, sugar= Deoxyribose, Thymine
RNA -carry info -AU, GC -1 stand, sugar= Ribose, Uracil
Polysaccharide long carbohydrate molecules of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds
Saccharide simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three or more
salt NaCl
Chlorine extracted from chloride in salts
Created by: Tel3