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MCB E1- labs&histo

labs and histological methods

Reference Range set of lab values that define a state of "health" has about a 95% confidence window
What are the 2 the main complications of reference ranges 1)reference range for well individuals may overlap with ill individuals leading to false positive and false negatives 2) most lab tests in populations do NOT follow perfect bell-shape
What values are included in a Complete Blood Count (CBC)? RBC and WBC counts Hemoglobin (HGB) hematocrit (HCT) Cell Indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, MPV) Platelet count (PLT)
Hemoglobin (HGB) measures blood's capacity to carry oxygen influenced by altitude, age, smoking, bed rest low value = anemia
RBC count expressed as
Hematocrit (HCT) height of red cell column/height of total blood column after centrifugation approximately 3X Hb value
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) Red cell Indice that helps classify anemias = Hematocrit/RBC count Increased MCV = macrocytic decreased MCV = microcytic
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) Red Cell Indice that estimates amount of hemoglobin in an average RBC = (hemoglobin x 100)/ hemtatocrit helps classify anemias
WBC most often counts neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes may reported basophils, and subdivide neutrophils into segmentend (mature) and Bands (babies!)
Peripheral Blood Smear stainded with Wrights allows you to see changes in size, shape, and structure of cells good to evaluate leukemia (and Sickle cell!!)
Hemostasis assessment tests that measure clotting ability must take a good history and physical exam 1st! include Platelet count, smear, Prothromin time (PT) and Partial Thromboplastin time (PTT)
Urine appearance & pH only mention appearance if not normal Different colors of cloudiness indicate presence of blood, bile, proteins, food and drugs, and other molecules normal pH = 6
Urine Specific gravity and protein gravity (SG) measured with dipstick to monitor tubular fxn and osmolarity protein measures amount of albumin, but not very sensitive
Urine glucose + = hyperglycemia or tubular impairment (decrease resorption of glucose) NOT for routine diabetes testing
microscopic urine examination examine centrifuged sediment under microscope report RBC, WBC, casts, crystals
electrolytes/BMP/Chem7 assesses general metabolic state include: [Na+, K+, Cl-, CO2/HCO3-] (lytes), [BUN, Creatinine] (renal fxn), and glucose
What is the anion "GAP" measure of the difference b/w cations (Na+) and reported anions (Cl- and CO2/HCO3- Cations > Anions, but if this gap enlargens, it indicates acute illness!
Cardiac Markers Creatine Kinase (CK-MB) - being replaced by Cardiac Troponin I - indicates damage to cardiac mm cells
Liver Fxn Tests tests of synthesis - amount of protein, coag. factors Tests of injury - bilirubin, liver enzymes
What dye is used for proteins, nucleic acids & ribosomes, proteoglycans, carbs proteins = eosin/acid dye nucleic acid/ribosomes = hematoxlyin/base dye proteoglycans = alican blue/base dye Carbs = PAS
autofluoresence molecules are excited by photons causing them to release photons of a lower wavelength ("stokes shift")
Compare beam, wavelength of beam, resolution of light microscopes vs electron microscopes Light: light beam, long wavelength, low resolution electron: electron beam, short wavelength, high resolution
What microscope is best for melanin, hemoglobin, or any other light-absorbing pigment? bright-field microscope
What microscope is best for dense cellular structures? phase contrast microscope
What microscope is good for fiber-like structures (bone, nerve, mm) Phase contrast microscope
Created by: c.phill