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AP World History

Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 16

TermDefinitionSignificanceTime PeriodChapterRegion
White Huns a nomadic people from central Asia who occupied Bactria during the fourth century and then prepared to cross the Hindu Kush mountains into India their invasions weakened the Gupta state and lead to their collapse; a period of kingdoms followed; soon after, Harsha established his kingdom 300-400 CE 16; p. 213,406 India (northern)
Harsha revived imperial authority in northern India; had a reputation for piety by accepting all faiths, building hospitals, and patronizing scholars temporarily restored unified rule in most of northern India; unable to restore centralized rule due to local kings and left no heir when assasinated 600 CE; reign 606-648 CE 16; p. 406-407 India(northern)
Arrival of Islam several routes: conquest of Sind, merchants, turkish migrants, the Sultanate of Delhi established a secure placement in the culural landscape of India 700-1200 CE 16; p. 407-409 India
Conquest of Sind Arab forces conquer Sind(the Indus river valley in northwestern India) by a well-organized expedition and incorporate it into the Umayyad Dynasty attempted to establish the Islam region among the Indian subcontinent 711 CE 16; p. 407-408 India(north-west)
Muslim merchants took Islamic faith to coastal regions with the domination of trade between India and western lands gradually attempted to bring Islam into the Indian subcontinent 600-1000 CE 16; p. 408 India(coastal)
Mahmud of Ghazni leader of the Turks in Afghanistan who intended to pluder the wealth in many well-endowed temples; demolished hundreds of Buddhist and Hindu sites and established mosques and Islamic shrines in their place hastened the decline of Buddhism in India; did not encourage the conversion to Islam 1000 CE 16; p.408 India(northern)
Sultanate of Delhi Mahmud's successors mount more systematic campaigns establishing an Islamic state, the Sultanate of Delhi; capital at Delhi; never overcame Hindu resistance sponsored Islam and helped establish faith in Indian culture 1206-1526 CE 16; p. 408-409 India(northern)
Chola Kingdom exercised nominal rule over southern India; naval forces dominated waters from the South China Sea to the Arabian Sea; maintained order by tax revenues encouraged trade and established loose rule over southern India 850-1267 CE 16; p. 409 India(southern) Coromandel coast
Kingdom of Vijayanagar "city of victory" established a Hindu empire after renouncing Islam; fell to Mughal conquerors allowed for Muslim and Hindu merchants to trade in southern India 1336-1565 CE 16; p.410 India(southern) northern Deccan"
Funan wealthy state that dominated the Isthmus of Kra and controled trade between China and India; adopted Indian political, cultural, and religious traditions; fell due to internal power struggles first known state to reflect indian influence; constructed elaborate water storage and irrigation systems 1st to 6th century 16; p.424-425 lower reaches of the Mekong River (modern Cambodia and Vietnam)
Kingdom of Srivijaya southeast Asian kingdom; financed major navy and bureaucracy on trade ship taxes; eliminated need of Isthmus of Kra; fell to Chola Kingdom 11th century powerful navy dominated trade and maintained all-sea trade route between China and India 670-1025 CE 16; p.425-426 Sumatra, Mayla peninsula, and Borneo (based in Sumatra)
Kingdom of Angkor southeast Asian kingdom centered around the temple cities of Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat; fell to invasion of Thai people strongly dispolays Indian influence is southeast Asia through a "microcosmic reflection of the Hindu world" 889-1431 CE 16; p.426-427 southeast Asia
Melaka prominent tradinbg state with powerful navy that patrolled southeast Asian waters; predominantly Islamic one of the only Islamic states in southeast Asia; sponsored missionary compaignes to spread Islam late 14th to 15th century 16; p.428 Stait of Melaka, southeast Asia (modern Singapore)
Indian Influence in Southeast Asia Indian merchants trade Indian goods with southeast Asian rulers who gain regional control from profits; through trade and communication, southeast Asian rulers are introduced to Indian political and cultural traditions spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, kingship, and court administrative systems to southeast Asia began early as 500 BCE; largely seen during early centuries CE 16; p.423-424 southeast Asia
Monsoons moisture laden winds from the Southwest in spring and summer, and dry winds from the Northeast in the winter and fall. the monsoons allowed the Indian soil to reach its full agricultural potential and last during the dry months. They also enabled Indian trade vessels to navigate the waters of the Indian Ocean with the advantage of the predictable winds. all time Ch 16, pg 411 Indian Ocean
Irrigation the watering of fields during the dry season by canals and aqueducts, dams, reservoirs, wells and tunnels. after the monsoon season ended, dry Southern India depended on irrigated water from rivers in North India to water their crops. 600 CE – today Ch 16, pg 411 South India
Dhows and Junks merchant trade ships commonly used in the Indian Ocean, Indian, Persian and Arab sailors favored the dhows, the Chinese and SE Asians favored the junks. they could carry between 100 – 400 tons and greatly increased the trade capacity and volume flowing through India. 1000-1750's Ch 16, pg 412 Indian Ocean
Emporia large warehouses on the coast of India that held trade goods from all corners of the globe. the concentration of trade in India because of its central location and emporia made the population and economy boom. 1000-1800's Ch 16, pg 413 India (South and Coastal)
Axum an African Kingdom that was dependant on the Indian Ocean’s trade and converted to Christianity. It eventually led to Nubia’s decline. it became a predominant African Christian Kingdom and controlled Indian Ocean trade to Africa. 1st - 10th centuries Ch 16, pg 415 Nothern Ethiopia
Caste the rigid social structure of India that allowed each person a niche in Indian society. caste replaced stable imperial government in India and allowed foreigners to assimilate easily into Indian society. 3500 BCE - today Ch 16, pg 417-418 Indian Subcontinent
Monsoons seasonal winds that blew southwest in the wet season of spring and summer and blew northeast in the dry season of winter and fall the monsoon winds facilitated trade and allowed the Indians to travel about the Indian Ocean Basin. They also provided a source of water for the steppes of southern India. unknown 16, pg 411 section 2 Indian Ocean Basin
Irrigation Systems systems of canals, resevoirs, dams, well, and tunnels that transported water across the dry, southern region of India and into the valleys that ar not reached by the waters of the Indus and Ganges Rivers. they allowed for more successful agriculture and higher rates of production, which led to a growth in population. began in harrapan times, around 1500 BC 16, pg 411 section 2 Indian Subcontinent
Population Growth and Urbanization between 600 AD and 1500 AD population grew from 53 million to about 105 million, and many cities, especially ports and trading centers, grew to have populations of over 100,000 the higher numbers of people living in higher concentrations allowed for an increase in commerce and trade 600- 1500 AD 16, pg 411 section 2 Indian Subcontinent
Internal Trade trade of products such as iron copper, salt, pepper, spices, condiments and specialized crops that were only available in certain areas of India the increase in trade boosted the economy and allowed people, especially in southern India and Ceylon to amass great wealth post-classical India 16, pg 412 section 2 Indian Subcontinent
Dhows and Junks dhows were Indian, Persian and Arab ships that could carry up to 400 tons of cargo. Junks were the chinese and southeast Asian ships that could carry up to 1000 tons of cargo they improved trade across the Indian Basin by allowing merchants to carry larger shipments of cargo. around 1500 16, pg 412 section 2 Indian Ocean Basin
Emporia a marketplace; applied to India due to its ideal location between the East and West the ideal location of india boostd thier economy and encouraged merchants to migrate into India, which spread foriegn culture 600 AD and after 16, pg 413 section 2 India, China, Southeast Asia
The kingdom of Axum (Aksum) a Christian kingdom that replaced Kush as the principle trading link between Egypt and the southern ands. they tied the regions of egyot to the southern lands and the trade of India to the trade of Africa. 4th - 8th centuries AD 16, pg 415 section 2 modern day northern Ethiopia
Caste Change and Migration the integration of Muslims into the traditional Indian society, they formed new subcastes (jati) and the caste system became more complex and began to encompass a larger area. it accommodated social change and promoted the expansion of trade between people who had traditionally followed the caste system and those who had not. post calssical area 16, pg 416 section 2 Indian Subcontinent
Created by: scnn4 on 2008-04-16



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