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Anat- Gast & Neurla

Gastrulation and Neurulation

What is the major end result of the embryonic period and how long is it? organogenesis - lasts from day 15 to 8th week
When is the zygotic and fetal period? zygotic is time before the embryonic period; fetal period is from end of embryonic to birth (38 weeks)
When is the developing human most suceptible to major malformations that manifest themselves at birth? during the embryonic period
Gastrulation conversion of bilaminar disc into a trilaminar disc by forming the intraembryonic mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm all from the epiblast
Describe how the 3 germ layers are created epiblast cells delaminate at primitive streak & displace hypoblast cells to form the endo; cells continue to delaminate over endo to form intraembryonic meso & continue until they reach the extraembryonic meso; left over epiblast = ectoderm
What is the primitive streak and primitive node and where do they come from? streak = pit, node, and groove; node = mound of cells at the head of the pit. Forms when the epiblast cells begin to delaminate in towards the hypoblast cells during gastrulation
What are the cloacal and oropharyngeal membrane and how are they made? only sections on the embyro where the ectoderm still contacts the endoderm. rest of the embryo separates endo and ecto via the intraembryonic mesoderm cells
What is the notochord process and how is it made? gastrulating intraembryonic meso cells mover cranially form a hollow tube (notochord process); process fuses with endo to open to yolk sac and then separates from the endo again to form a solid "definitive notochord" used for crainial/caudal patterning
What is a sacrococcygeal teratoma? remnants of primitive streak cells that fail to regress and form malignant/benign tumor containing all 3 germ layers. most common form is congenitatl neoplastic tumor that have a high mortality rate due to extensive invasion
What is the neural plate and where does it come from? section of ectoderm that the notochord induces causes the lateral edges to lift up (neural folds and groove) and eventually close together to form a neural tube beginning in the occipital region in the process of primary neurulation
What is secondary neurulation and how does it differ from primary neurulation? formation of a solid group of mesodermal cells at the caudal end of the notochord called a medullary cord. Main difference is that the neural tube made is from the mesoderm while the cord in primary neurulation is from the ecotoderm
Describe the ultimate fate of the neural tube. Neural tube in head area makes brain vesicles and the rest of the cord makes the spinal cord
What are the anterior and posterior neuropores? What happens if they do not close? Cranial (ant) and Caudal (post) neuropores; failure of cranial to close causes anencephaly (no forebrain; die soon after birth) & failure of caudal causes rachischisis (myeloschisis)- survive but with many clinical problems; both are type of spina bifida
Spinal bifida occulta (type of spina bifida) vertebral arches of a single vertebrae fails to form without neural tube protruding out; seen as a tuft of hair on spine or a birthmark
Meningocele (type of spina bifida) meningies protrude out through missing vertebral arch into a cele
Meninogmyelocele (type of spina bifida) Neural tissue + meninges protrude out
Craniorachischisis totalis (type of spina bifida) entire neural tube does not close - leads to spontaneous abortion
where do neural crest cells come from? as neural tube folds, cells from neuroectoderm junction migrate to various parts of the body; can come from an place along the axis of the neural tube except the forebrain
What neural crest cells give rise to autonomic nervous system, bones, cartilage, maxilla & mandible, face, nose, ear, lymphoid organs, smooth mm of blood vessels, iris, and cardiac innervation? Cranial Neural crest cells
What neural crest cells give rise to dorsal root ganglia, nervous system of the GI tract, sympathetic nervous system, and cells of adrenal medulla? Trunk Neural crest cells
What neural crest cells give rise to melanocytes, schwann cells, pia and arachnoid, carotid body, and cells of thyroid other neural crest cells
Hirschsrpung's Disease (food doesn't pass through sections of GI), Cleft lip and palate, craniofacial dysplasias, aorticopulmonary and ventricular septal defects, DiGeorge Syndrome, Waardenburg Syndrome are what type of disorders? Neurocristopathies
Created by: c.phill