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The energy attributed to an object by virtue of its motion is known as _________. kinetic energy
The angular distance between a pair of objects in the sky is the angle that appears to separate them. True or false. True.
Which of the following is not true about a scientific theory? A theory is essentially an educated guess.
A week after full moon, the Moon's phase is: third quarter
Momentum is defined as _________. mass times velocity
Galileo observed all of the following. Which observation offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun? Phases of Venus.
Who was/were the first person/people known to make models of nature? Greeks
In the formula E=mc2, what does c represent? the speed of light
In winter, Earth's axis points toward the star Polaris. In spring: the axis also points toward Polaris
Newton’s 2nd law of motion states that force equals mass times acceleration, or F=ma. Suppose you have already calculated the gravitational force (Fg), attracting Earth and the Moon. Then the amount of acceleration of Earth due to this force is Fg divided by the mass of the Earth
The Moon’s shadow always points directly __________. away from the Sun
Kepler's first law tells us that a planet's distance from the Sun varies during its orbit. It is the closest at the point True or False.called aphelion and farthest at the point called perihelion. True or False. False.
According to Kepler's third law, how does a planet's mass affect its orbit around the Sun? A planet's mass has no effect on its orbit around the Sun.
How often does a new moon occur? once a month
Some type of lunar or solar eclipse (not necessarily a total eclipse) occurs at least four times a year
The acceleration of gravity on Earth is approximately 10 m/s2 (more precisely, 9.8 m/s2). If you drop a rock from a tall building, about how fast will it be falling after 3 seconds? 30 m/s
What is a planet's total orbital energy? the sum of its kinetic and gravitational potential energies
How does a 12-month lunar calendar differ from our 12-month solar calendar? It has about 11 fewer days.
Suppose you visit another planet: Your mass would be the same as on Earth, but your weight would be different.
Lunar eclipses can occur only during a _________. full moon
Suppose a comet orbits the Sun on a highly eccentric orbit with an average (semimajor axis) distance of 1 AU. How long does it take to complete each orbit, and how do we know? 1 year, which we know from Kepler's third Law
According to the universal law of gravitation, if you double the distance between two objects, then the gravitational force between them _________. decreases by a factor of 4
The tilt of the Earth's axis remains close to 23.5°, but the direction the axis points in space changes slowly with the 26,000-year cycle of precession. True or False. True
What does temperature measure? the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance
According to Newton’s second law, the greater the force exerted on an object, the greater the object’s _____. acceleration
The difference between speed and velocity is that _________. velocity also includes a direction
A solar eclipse occurs when __________. the Moon’s shadow falls on Earth
Only one of the statements below uses the term theory in its correct, scientific sense. Which one? A scientific theory must make testable predictions that, if found to be incorrect, could lead to its own modification or demise.
Is the following equation Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation: F = (G*M1)/(d2) True or False False
When a spinning ice skater pulls in his arms, he spins faster because _________. his angular momentum must be conserved, so reducing his radius must increase his speed of rotation
Suppose that two objects collide. Which of the following things is NOT the same both before and after the collision? the total temperature of the objects
Which of the following statements is not one of Newton's Laws of Motion? What goes up must come down
Two stars that are in the same constellation: b. may actually be very far away from each other.
Suppose you lived on the Moon. Which of the following would be true? Your weight would be less than your weight on Earth, but your mass would be the same as it is on Earth
Earth is farthest from the Sun in July and closest to the Sun in January. During which Northern Hemisphere season is Earth moving fastest in its orbit? Winter
In the formula E=mc2, what does E represent? The mass-energy, or potential energy stored in an object's mass
If you want to make a rocket turn left, you need to: Fire an engine that shoots out gas to the right.
Created by: zemca