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Vocab list Digestive

Vocabulary list Ch. 5 Digestive System

termwhat is it
absorption passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the blood stream
amino acids building blocks of proteins and produced when proteins are digested
amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus opening of the digective tract to the outside of the body
appendix blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ). It literally means hanging
bile Digestive juice made in the liver stored in the gallbladder
bilirubin pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel intestine
canine teeth pointed, dog-like (canine) teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth
cecum first part of the large intestine
colon large intestine (cecum, ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and rectum)
common bile duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum
defecation expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus
deglutition swallowing
dentin major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
digestion breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum first part of the small intestine duo=2 den=10, 12 inches long
elimination removal of waste material from the body
emulsification physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzyme can use to digest fat
enamel hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes help the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods
esophagus tube containing the throat to the stomach. Eso-means inward; phag/o means swallowing
fatty acids substances produced when fats are digested
feces solid wastes; stools
gallbladder small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch; glucose is stored in the form og gylcogen in lever cells
hydrochloric acid substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum third part of the small intestine
incisor one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. it transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum second part of the small intestine.
lipase pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. Secrets bile, stores sugar,iron,vitamins,produces blood proteins, destroys wornout red blood cells.
lower esophagus sphincter (LES) ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach
mastication chewing
molar teeth sixth, seventh, and eigth teeth from the middle on either side of dental arch
palate roof of the mouth, the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate
pancreas organ udner the stomach, produces insulin and enzymes
papillae small elevations on the tongue
parotid gland salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis rhythm like contractions of the tubes of GI tracct, and other tubular structures
pharynx throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose
portal vein large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestine
protease enzymes that digest protein
pulp soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter ring muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum
rectum last section of the colon
rugae ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands parotid, siblingual and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon lower part of the colon; shaped like an S
sphincter ring of muscle fibers that contricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus.fundus-proximal section, body-middle, antrum-distal section
triglycerides large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol
uvula soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth
villi microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
Created by: funnykitty24