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Strategies for LD

What processes constitute beginning reading skills? Phonological awareness and word recognition
What is phonological awareness? Translating letters into sounds
What are causes of children not having a difficult time with reading? Not able to proccess the sounds, cannot hear the different sounds (acuity problem not hearing related), boundaries between the phonemes.
How can you enhance phonological awareness at an early age? Immerse them in words, word games, rhyming, story reading, etc.
How do you know a child is ready to begin reading words? They understand words can be spoken or written, that print corresponds with speech, and that they are made of sounds.
What does the mapping of print to speech mean? Establishing a clear link between a letter and a sound. Also known as alphabetic awareness.
Mastering beginning learning corresponds to the foundation of what? nearly all subsequent learning
What is considered the age of adult illiteracy? Reading below the 4th grade level
What percent, nationally, is considereed functionally illiterate? 25%
What is the biggest challenge of working with older students who struggle with reading? They have not practiced reading and find it difficult, slow and frustrating.
What is the root cause of comprehension problems in older readers? They lose comprehension skills because they do not read enough to practice them.
What is the average rate of speed for most readers 3rd grade and adult? 3rd graders 100wpm and adults 300wpm
How is most vocabulary obtained? Through listening vocabulary through 4th or 5th grade and primarily through reading after that.
What skills must teachers focus on for comprehension? Sentence structure, text cohesion, punctuation, phrasing and grammar
What non reading activity can increase reading comprehension? Written responses to reading
What are the 4 most common causes of poor reading? Nuerological, familial, social disadvantage/cultural, and instructional.
What things are considered necessary conditions for learning to read? Phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, orthoraphic awareness and comprehensive monitoring strategies.
What is number sense? The ability of a child to work fluidily and felxibly with numbers. Understand what numbers mean. The ability to perform mental mathmeatics. The ability to make connections to the world in numbers.
How is numbers sense influenced and facilitated? Through the environment. It is the phonics of math.
What is the most common mistake made in developing number sense? Fact memorization which leads to fact knowledge and not an understanding of numbers.
What is automaticity? the extended practice of a skill so that the student has the ability to reach a level of proficiency that is rapid and accurate with little or no conscious monitoring.
What is the largest connection between cognitive problems and math? High frequency of procedural errors, difficulty in represenation and retrieveal of facts and inability to symbolically or visually represent numerical information to memory.
What is the largest problem with the teaching of math that has lead to greater deficits? The teaching is focused on memorization of facts and algorithms. Students lack the structrual understanding of numbers to decode more intense mathematical procedures.
When should information be reviewed in order to retain the information for the longest term? Within 24 hours of learning the information
What are the keys to sorting information? creating a retrieval system by formulating the information into categories
What makes frequent review successful? Allows for the student tostudy new information the day you heard or read it. Small review daily assists in memory attachment.
How can humor and exaggeration be used in increasing memory? Information stays longer if it is novel or interesting.
How can you incorporate your senses into learning? involving movement, hearing and seeing, the information may stick better for most learners.
How can color assist in retention? Color can help categorize and sort information for you.
How can visual aids be incorporated? Adding pictures, cartoons, graphs, etc may make the information more appealing and easier to remember.
What is rehearsing aloud? Verbally repeating the information by saying it to themself, a partner or even recording information to assist in memorization.
What are some ways that you can add physical activity to assist in memorization? by pacing, jumping, throwing a ball, or rewriting while reviewing information may be helpful to some kinesthetic learners.
What is another creative way to assist in memorizing important information? turning it into a game. Play matching game, memory game, etc with key information.
Students who often struggle with reading also struggle with what other content area? Spelling
Why do poor readers often struggle with spelling? Poor readers usually have a low phonemic awareness leading to a hard time sounding words out to spell them Spelling is enhanced through exposure to words that non readers may not experience due to reading aversions
Why is spelling so difficult? English spelling is very complex and words come from various backgrounds of knowledge
What knowledge is necessary for spelling in English? phonemic awarness or common letter sound relationships, morphological knowledge of root words and word-specific knowledge.
What are some keys for teaching spelling to learners with a disability? provide systematic phonics instruction, teach common irrigular words as soon as possible, use useful spelling rules, emphasize important grade-level words, emphasize activities that involve writing of words, encourage study of words and encourage reading.
What is one of the biggest challenges of people? Time managment
What is the biggest challenge in time management? A lack of understanding of the concept of time or how much time a task will take.
What do LD students need to help them develop stronger time management skills? high structure, explicit teaching and extended opportunities to practice strategies till they have developed independence.
What is the first step to teaching time management? Task analysis
What is task anaylsis? The process of identifying what needs to get done to finish a given undertaking
How can teachers help students in developing task analysis skills? Have students estimate the steps and time it takes to complete a task and then time them doing the task. Compare the results. Start with basic tasks then work up to create a strong generalization.
How can teachers assist in enhancing note-taking skills in students with disabilities? Modify their presenation during lectures or teach students note-taking techniques
Why are students with LD inefficient note-takers? They have a hard time identifying important information, have a hard time writing fast enough to keep up with the lecturer, unable to read what they wrote, and do not understand what is being discussed
What are the two main purposes of notes? Aid in student understanding of lecture information and to serve as a reference material for later study
How do most LD students get through classes with poor note-taking skills? They have note-takers, notes are provided for them, rely on resource assistance or they don't attempt anything for support.
Why is note-taking so important? Allows for active engagement in the lesson, encourages clarification of information for long term memory storage and shows a positive correlation in test scores.
How can teachers assist in enhancing their presentation for better note-taking? Slow down the pacing, cue students to important information, and allow for review time at the end of class to review and fill in missing pieces
How can note takers work on enhancing their skills? asking for assistance from a teacher on how to take notes, preview the information in text books,learn shorthand to make writing more efficient, consistent practice and follow up with the teacher
What are the two types of note strategies a teacher can use to teach students how to take notes? Strategic note taking that the student pulls out main points, summarizes and key terms or use guided notes with a basic outline
Created by: hunderwood