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M6 13-005

Exam 14: HIV/AIDS

Acute Retroviral Syndrome Viral replication occurs during the acute infection period. Seroconversion is the development of antibodies from HIV. These symptoms may last approximately 1 to 2 weeks (sometimes several months).
HIV: early infection (1) The median time between HIV infection and the development of end-stage HIV disease or AIDS in an untreated individual this is anywhere from 10 to 14 years. Asymptomatic.
HIV: Early Symptomatic Disease CD4+ cell count drops below 500 cells/mm3. Idiopathic fevers, night sweats, chronic diarrhea, HA & fatigue. physical exam may reveal persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL).
AIDS end-stage, or terminal phase, of the spectrum of HIV infection.
AIDS: Criteria for diagnosis As HIV progresses, the CD4+ lymphocytes cell count decreases and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells (T-helper to T-suppressor cells), normally 2 to 1, gradually shifts resulting in more T-suppressor cells.
HIV-1 More rapid onset
HIV-2 Slower onset.
AIDS (Infected person's CD4+ Count) cell count of < to 200 cells/mm3.
HIV: modes of transportation Unsafe sexual practice. Sharing needles (sharps). Blood transfusion. Vertical transmission.
HIV: The three most common modes of transmission are (1) Anal or vaginal intercourse. (2) Contaminated drug-injecting equipment. (3) Transmission from mother to child.
Opportunistic Diseases associated with AIDS: Respiratory Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), fever, night sweats, non-productive cough, progressive shortness of breath, pneumonia, malaise, vesicular eruptions on the tracheobronchial mucosa, chest pain, hemoptysis.
Opportunistic Diseases associated with AIDS: Integumentary vesicular eruptions on mouth and perianal area, shingles, Kaposi’s sarcoma, erythematous papules and nodules.
Opportunistic Diseases associated with AIDS: Eye Lesions of the retina, blurred vision, loss of vision, ocular and/or corneal lesions, visual field defects.
Opportunistic Diseases associated with AIDS: Gastrointestinal watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, stomatitis, esophagitis, gastritis, colitis, bloody diarrhea, whitish-yellow patches in mouth, esophagus and GI tract.
Opportunistic Diseases associated with AIDS: Neurologic cognitive dysfunction, motor impairment, fever, headache, seizures, decrease LOC, hemiparesis, mental and motor declines with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, stiff neck, personality changes, aphasia.
HIV disease: Pathophysiology Requires cells for replication. Released into lymphatic system (binds to CD4+lymphocytes). Reproduces quickly.
Diagnostic tests for HIV ELISA or enzyme immunoassay (EIA), antibody tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies. CD4+ cell monitoring. Viral load monitoring.
CD4+ cell monitoring Tracks progression of HIV disease. Its the best marker for immunodeficiency with HIV. Used in making decisions about drug therapy.
Created by: jtzuetrong