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M6 13-005

Exam 14: Drugs & The Immune System

T lymphocytes form specialized cells in lymphoid tissue and organs to provide cellular immunity
B lymphocytes form antibodies to provide humoral immunity
Antibodies gamma globulins are specific for particular antigens
Active Immunity body produces specific antibodies to combat infection caused by specific antigens or microbes (Vaccines)
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity occurs when an individual is given a killed or weakened antigen, which stimulates the formation of antibodies against the antigen.
Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI) result of the activity of many leukocyte actions, reactions, and interactions that range from simple to complex.
T lymphocytes and macrophages ork together in CMI to destroy the antigen.
T lymphocytes defend against viral, fungal and some bacterial infections
Humoral Immunity antibody-antigen response.
Antigen a substance, usually a protein, which stimulates the body to produce antibodies.
Antibody globulin (protein) produced by the B lymphocytes as a defense against an antigen.
Naturally Acquired Active Immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a disease, experiences the disease, and the body manufactures antibodies to provide future immunity to the disease.
Passive Immunity provided to the person by ready-made antibodies from another human or from an animal source. Immediate immunity to the invading antigen, but only last a short time. Your body did not have to do it.
Immunoglobulins bind with antigens and promote the destruction of invading cells by either hindering antigens by neutralizing their toxins.
Immunoglobulins: Action Immunity from immune globulins is rapid, but short-lived (up to 3 months).
RHo (D) immune globulin (Rhogam) Given postpartum as a suppressant to prevent future hemolytic diseases of newborns Prevent production of anti-RHoD antibodies in RHoD negative pts who were exposed to RHoD positive blood.
Hepatitis B immune globulin (Engerix-B, Recombivax HB) provides passive immunity to hepatitis B.
Rabies immunoglobin rabies prophylaxis
Tetanus immunoglobulin post-exposure tetanus prophylaxis, tetanus treatment.
Active immunization with vaccine or toxoids produces prolonged immunity... How long? years
Immunosuppressants (Compromised) Suppress certain T-lymphocyte cell lines, preventing their involvement in an immune response Induces an immunocompromised state similar to cancer patients and those with AIDS They are all generally given in conjunction with corticosteroids.
cytokine release syndrome (CRS) High fever and chills, headache, dizziness, malaise, tremors of hands, N/V/D, chest pain, tachycardia, muscle and joint pain, SOB
Relative contraindications, depending on the patient’s diagnosis (Immunosupressants) 1) Renal or hepatic failure 2) Hypertension 3) Concurrent radiation therapy.
cytokine release syndrome (CRS): Seen with what meds? basiliximab, daclizumab, and muromomab
Cyclosporine: Fun facts 1) Drugs that alter liver-metabolizing processes may change the effect of cyclosporine. 2) Concurrent digestion of grapefruit or grapefruit juice increases absorption and should be avoided.
Neutrophils (normal value) 3000-7000 mm3.
Neutropenia < 1000 mm3
Severe neutropenia < 500 mm3
Immunosuppressant Implementation Thorough hand washing. Neutropenic precautions. meticulous mouth, skin and perineal care. No standing water.
Antineoplastics (Chemotherapy) to kill every neoplastic cell and produce a cure
cell cycle-nonspecific: cytotoxic (cell killing) in any phase of the cycle
cell cycle-specific aimed at a specific cell cycle phase
Antineoplastics: Assessment Monitor for bone marrow depression. Assess for bleeding. Assess for signs of neutropenia. Monitor for increased fatigue, dyspnea, and orthostatic hypotension. Monitor intake and output ratios, appetite, and nutritional intake.
Created by: jtzuetrong