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Ch. 24 questions

Respiratory Tract Diseases

How is TB transmitted? via respiratory droplets
What does a positive Mantoux or tine test indicate? TB infected the person at some time
How has TB tx changed? requires antibacterial susceptibility testing to find effective drugs--tx with triple ABT for 6 mos-2 yrs
Describe the pseudomembrane caused by diphtheria seudomembrane--forms in pharynx--can cause asphyxiation--should not be removed--risk of bleeding to death
What is unusual about the morphology of Bordetella pertussis? Bordetella pertussis is a coccobacillus
Who is most susceptible to pertussis? young children
How is pertussis recognized? by paroxysmal sound when coughing stops long enough for inspiration
What does a paroxysm cause? whooping sound that occurs when coughing must stop for O2 replacement by stressful inspiration
What 2 systems are used to classigy the streptococci? Lancefield's C carbohydrate grouping (A,B,C, etc) and by hemolysis type
What are the common, significant sites of human infection by the streptococci? common, significant sites of human strptococcal infection are throat, oral cavities, vagina, and intestines
In what relatively new site is group B strep (strep agalactiae) found today? human vaginal tract
Which people are at risk for which diseases from group B strep? newborns are at risk for septicemia and meningitis from group B strep
What color will viridans step produce on blood agar? What particular disease does viridans strp cause? viridans strp will produce a greenish tinge on blood agar--viridans strep causes subacute endocarditis
what chemical componenet of the cell wass is used to differentiate the above streptococci? C carbohydrate is used to differentiate streptococci
What relation does the pneumococcal (strep pneumoniae) capsule have to virulence? oly encapsulated strains are virulent
What relation does the pneumococcal (strep pneumoniae) capsule have to do with the number of times an individual can acquire qneumococcal pneumonia? ninety times because there are ninety serovars
What are the epidemiology and pathology of the pneumococcus? spread from human to human--pus-like exudate and fluid accumulation in the lungs--x-rays/rusty sputum help dx--death by drowning--lungs fill with fluid
How should infection with the pneumococcus be prevented? infection with pneumococcus prevented with pneumovax--immuity lasts 5 yrs--booster shots recommended if no hypersensitivity develops
List two unusual characteristics about Mycoplasma cell envelopes cell has no cell wall (peptidoglycan layer) and membranes that contain sterols
Describe how to diagnose the disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae best dx is to observe increasing tiiters of cold agglutinins that cause RBC agglutination at refrigerator temps
Describe the source, symptoms, and at-risk individuals for legionellosis. On what does Legionella pneumophila usually feed? sources are aerosols from lakes, streams, cooling towers--sx--resp. distress--at risk--heavy smokers and drinkers--feed on amoebae
How do contacts of meningitis patients protect themselves? health-care workers/family contacts--at risk to acquire meningitis from pts and need prophylactic tx with rifampin
What is the most common cause of meningitis? Hemophilus influenzae--organism initially isolated from flu pt--gram-neg. pleomorphic, rod-shaped, aerobic organism--requires carbon dioxide and vit. to grow--90% fatal if untx--1/3 have perm. mental damage if tx immediately
How soon does tx of meningococcal meningitis need to start? tx of meningococcal meningitis needs to start immediately
How are C. pneumoniae cultured? can't be grown on bacterial media--must be grown inside of human cells in culture--can't produce own ATP and must acquire from host cell--obligate intracellular pathogens
What virulence activities are associated with each layer of streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep)? What virulence activities are associated with major toxins? C carbohydrate prevents lysozyme from lysing cells--M protein--displays 90 types--attachment factor and antiphagocytic--hyaluronic acid capsule masks bacteria--streptolysins damage membrane of heart cells and WBCs
Created by: heatherlvn