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Biology Finals 7


Recombinant DNA DNA in which one or more segments or genes have been inserted, either naturally or by laboratory manipulation, from a different molecule or from another part of the same molecule, resulting in a new genetic combination.
Plasmid a segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication, occurring in bacteria and yeast: used in recombinant DNA procedures to transfer genetic material from one cell to another.
Restriction Enzyme any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of DNA molecules at specific sites: used for gene splicing in recombinant DNA technology and for chromosome mapping.
Sticky Ends single-stranded end of DNA or RNA having a nucleotide base sequence complementary to that of another strand, enabling the two strands to be connected by base pairing
gene splicing recombinant DNA technology.
DNA Genetics. deoxyribonucleic acid: an extremely long macromolecule
transcription to make an exact copy of
translation change or conversion to another form, appearance, etc.; transformation
codon a triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule.
anticodon a sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis.
RNA ribonucleic acid any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast, containing along the strand a linear sequence of nucleotide bases that is complementary to the DNA strand
mRNA messenger RNA.
tRNA One of a class of RNA molecules that transports amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis. Also called transfer RNA .
nucleotide any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA or RNA: composed of a phosphate group, the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, and a pentose sugar, in RNA the thymine base being replaced by uracil.
Gregor Mendel Through the selective cross-breeding of common pea plants (Pisum sativum) over many generations, Mendel discovered that certain traits show up in offspring without any blending of parent characteristics.
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits.
phenotype the appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and the environment.
homozygous having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics.
heterozygous having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic.
dominant the one of a pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same cell or organism.
recessive that one of a pair of alternative alleles whose effect is masked by the activity of the second when both are present in the same cell or organism.
monohybrid the offspring of individuals that differ with respect to a particular gene pair.
dihybrid the offspring of parents differing in two specific pairs of genes.
sex linked (of a gene) located in a sex chromosome.
sex influenced traits controlled by autosome; sex influenced trait is baldness
mutation a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome.
species composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another spe
population the assemblage of a specific type of organism living in a given area.
subspecies a subdivision of a species, especially a geographical or ecological subdivision.
gene pool the total genetic information in the gametes of all the individuals in a population.
density dependent Density dependence occurs when the population growth rate, or constituent gain rates (e.g. birth and immigration) or loss rates (death and emigration), vary causally with population size or density
carrying capacity the maximum, equilibrium number of organisms of a particular species that can be supported indefinitely in a given environment. Abbreviation: K
producer Animals are called consumers. This is because they cannot make their own food, so they need to consume (eat) plants and/or animals.
consumer an organism, usually an animal, that feeds on plants or other animals.
autotroph any organism capable of self-nourishment by using inorganic materials as a source of nutrients and using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis as a source of energy, as most plants and certain bacteria and protists.
heterotroph an organism requiring organic compounds for its principal source of food
primary consumer (in the food chain) an animal that feeds on plants; a herbivore.
food web a series of organisms related by predator-prey and consumer-resource interactions; the entirety of interrelated food chains in an ecological community.
food chain a series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc.
dentrification to reduce (nitrates) to nitrites, ammonia, and free nitrogen, as in soil by microorganisms.
nitrification to impregnate with nitrogen or nitrogen compounds.
nitrifying bacteria Any of various soil bacteria that change ammonia or ammonium into nitrite or change nitrite into nitrate as part of the nitrogen cycle
transpiration the passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere.
evaporation to change from a liquid or solid state into vapor; pass off in vapor.
condensation to become liquid or solid, as a gas or vapor
natural selection forms of life having traits that enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind.
evolution change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.
omnivore eating both animal and plant foods.
carnivore an animal that eats flesh.
herbivore feeding on plants.
dentrifying Bacteria Soil microorganisms whose action results in the conversion of nitrates in soil to free atmospheric nitrogen, thus exhausting soil fertility and reducing agricultural productivity.
binomial nomenclature a formal system used in biology to name organisms.
homologous structures Structures derived from a common ancestor or same evolutionary or developmental origin
vestigial structures Vestigial structures provide a clue to the evolutionary history of a species because they are remnants of structures found in the ancestral species.
biomass the amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat.
decomposer an organism, usually a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down the cells of dead plants and animals into simpler substances.
oligiotrophic (of a lake) characterized by a low accumulation of dissolved nutrient salts, supporting but a sparse growth of algae and other organisms, and having a high oxygen content owing to the low organic content.
eutrophic (of a lake) characterized by an abundant accumulation of nutrients that support a dense growth of algae and other organisms, the decay of which depletes the shallow waters of oxygen in summer.
use and disuse life started out simple and became more complex & Lamarck believed that disuse would cause a trait to become reduced &He believed that traits changed or acquired over an individual's lifetime could be passed down to its offspring.
Lamarck Lamarck: The theory of transformation
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus is often called the Father of Taxonomy. His system for naming, ranking, and classifying organisms is still in wide use today (with many changes).
Darwin proposed a theory of evolution occurring by the process of natural selection. The animals (or plants) best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on the characteristics which helped them survive to their offspring.
density independent A factor that influences individuals in a population in a manner that does not vary with the extent of crowding present in the population.
Created by: Jenjen4407