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Renal Pathology

Glomerulonephritis, Acute RF and Chronic RF

Smoky haematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, some kidney impairment and some oedema Nephritic Syndrome
Heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia, oedema, hyperlipidaemia Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome with a bland urine sediment Minimal change GN, diabetic nephropathy or amyloid deposition
Renal failure occuring over a few months with active urine sediment Rapidly progressive GN
The most common cause of nephritic syndrome in children. Is due to an immune-directed circulating factor that causes the glomeruli to leak. Bland urine sediment and normal glomeruli under light microscopy Minimal Change Disease
Nephrotic syndrome in adults due to a circulating immune-directed permeability factor. Sclerosis occurs in some parts of some glomuerli. Treatment with prednisolone usually doesn't work Focal Segmental Glomerulonephritis
The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. It can be caused by antibodies, systemic lupus erythematosus and drugs. Membranous Glomerulonephritis
One of the most common causes of GN. Can occur at the same time as pharyngitis. IgA Glomerulonephritis
A nephritic syndrome that occurs after an infection with certain strains of Strep, usually in children. Proliferation with immune complex deposition. If the antigen is removed, they get better. Post-infectious Glomerulonephritis
A systemic autoimmune disease that usually occurs in young women and presents with a butterfly rash. Lupus Nephritis
Autoimmunity with autoantibodies to neutrophil proteins causing vasculitis in the lungs and kidneys. The neutrophils damage the basement membranes and cause severe necrosis. ANCA-associated Glomerulonephritis
Autoimmunity with autoantibodies to a structural collagen in the basement membranes of the kidneys and lungs. Results in cresent formation and rapidly progressive GN with lung haemorrhage. Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis (GOODPASTURE'S DISEASE)
Renal failure caused by shock and renal artery stenosis (TRIPLE WHAMMY) Pre-renal acute renal failure
Renal failure caused by bladder outflow obstruction, urethral stricture, ureteric obstruction or congential PUJ obstruction Post-renal acute renal failure
A tubulointerstitial, renal cause of ARF. It can be either toxic or ischaemic (from unresolved pre-renal ARF). Characterised by a bland urinary sediment and oliguria. Acute tubular necrosis
A tubulointerstitial cause of renal ARF. An inflammatory reaction that is usually in response to drugs (eg. antimicrobials, NSAIDs, diuretics). Eosinophil infiltration causes renal impairment. Acute or Chronic Interstitial Nephritis
A glomerular cause of renal ARF that is associated with glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Diabetic nephropathy
A complicating factor of vascular, renal ARF. Hypertension
A vascular cause of renal ARF characterised by the inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels by 'rogue' immune cells Polyarteritis
A vascular cause of renal ARF that is due to cholesterol release from an atheromatous plaque. There are increased inflammatory markers. Cholesterol athero-embolism (CE)
Increases the tone of the afferent (lesser) and efferent (greater) arterioles. Angiotensin II
Maintains normal afferent tone to prevent it from constricting fully. Prostacyclins
50% or more of kidney function Normal creatinine
Less than 50% of kidney function Elevated creatinine
15% residual GFR (urea >40mmol/L) Uraemia
<10% residual GFR End-stage renal failure
The most common cause of chronic renal failure in Australia. Diabetic nephropathy
Can be caused by ANCA glomerulonephritis, anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Presents as crescenteric glomerulonephritis. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Most common cause of UTIs E.Coli - gram negative bacilli
Factor that increases risk of calculi formation Urease - staph, proteus, pseudomonas
Antibiotic used for UTIs Trimethoprim (NEVER amoxicillin)for 3-5 days (uncomplicated) or 10-14 days (pyelonephritis)
Investigation for UTI in males, children or pyelonephritis Renal tract ultrasound
Investigation for first time UTI in female None
Treatment for recurrent UTIs Prophylactic or intermittent antibiotics
Recurrent UTIs in men Chronic prostatitis
Created by: Epoot