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Cells and Heredity

Vocab for Chapter 2

photosynthesis The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.
autotroph Is an organism that can make its own food.
heterotroph Is an organism that cannot make its own food and relies on eating other organisms for food.
pigments Are colored chemical compounds that absorb light.
chlorophyll Is the main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts.
stomata Is were carbon dioxide enters the plant through small openings on the underside of the leaves.
respiration Is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.
fermentation Is an energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen.
cell cycle Is the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
interphase Is the first stage of the cell cycle, the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells.
replication Is when the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
mitosis Is the second stage in the cell cycle, one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells.
chromosomes Are the threadlike chromatin in the nucleus that condense and form double-rod structures.
chromatid Is the name for each identical rod in a chromosome.
cytokinesis Is the final stage in the cell cycle, the cytoplasm divides, organelles are distributed into each of the two new cells.
Cancer Is a disease in which cells grow and divide uncontrollable, damaging the parts of the body around them.
mutation Is when damage causes a change in the DNA.
tumor Is a mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
Chemotherapy Is the use of dugs to treat a disease.
Created by: brendanlittle