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rise of nazi party

When did the Kaiser abdicate and when did Germany become a republic? 9th November 1918; 11th November - armistice
Why were many unhappy with the ending of the war? They saw it as a betrayal of the German army. The politicians who signed the armistice became known as the 'November Criminals.'
What were some weaknesses of the Weimar Constitution? -proportional representation system -power of the president with article 48 -appointment of a chancellor -frequent changes in gov. and elections -challenges from the army, civil service and judiciary
What was the Reichstag? The German Parliament
What was the position of the Chancellor in the Weimar Republic? What problems did this cause? The Chancellor was appointed by the President and was meant to be the leader of the largest party. After 1930 Hindenburg appointed chancellors who did not lead the largest party and allowed them to rule using Article 48.
What was Article 48? Article of the constitution which allowed President to declare a 'state of emergency' during times of crisis and rule by Presidential decree.
How did Weimar become dependent on the army? The W. Gov made a deal with the new army leader, Groener. It was agreed that the army would support the new government against revolution and the government would support and supply the army.
When was the Treaty of Versailles signed? 28 June 1919
How many clauses did the TofV contain? 440
What were the main terms of the TofV? -Territorial terms -military terms -financial terms -political terms (LAMB)
What were the territorial terms of the TofV? -Germany lost 13percent of its land. -It was forbidden to unite with Austria -Alsace-Lorraine was given to France. -East Prussia was to be cut off from the rest of Germany by the Polish corridor. -Saarland was to be administered by the League of Natio
What were the military terms of the TofV? German army was limited to 10000 men -it was forbidden to possess any tanks, heavy guns, aircraft or submarines -no naval vessel to be greater than 10,000 tons -rhineland demilitarised
What were the financial terms of the TofV? What was Clause 231? Under the war guilt clause Germany had to accept full responsibility for having caused the war and agree to pay money as reparations for the damage caused
What were the political terms of the TofV? Germany was forbidden tot join the newly created League of nations. Germany also had to accept blame for causing the war.
Why did hyperinflation occur from 1921-24? Weimar government began to print money in order to pay France and Belgium's reparations as well as its own workers.
Why were reparations such a problem for Germany in the 1920s? -economic damage from the war - loss of wealth-making industrial areas exaggerated the problem. - french belgian forces occupied the Ruhr in 1923 when Germany failed to meet reparations payments. -hyperinflation
How did the Weimar Republic recovery from 1924-29? Gustav Stresemann became Chancellor. He began to steady things by introducing the Rentenmark, which later became the Reichsmark. -Dawes plan -Young Plan
What was the Dawes Plan? 1924 - made reparation payments more manageable and the USA agreed to give loans to Germany to help their economic recovery.
What was the Young Plan? 1929 - payments were reduced to three-quarters and the length of time Germany had to pay was extended to 59 years.
What were the origins of the Nazi party? In 1919, Anton Drexler founded the German Workers Party (Deutsche Arbeiter Partei, DAP) in Munich, Bavaria.
How was Adolf Hitler introduced to the Nazi Party? Having no formal education and career prospects, he tried to remain in the army for as long as possible.In July 1919 he was appointed as an intelligence agent of the Reichswehr, to influence other soldiers and infiltrate the DAP.
How did Hitler come to be in charge of propaganda in the DAP? In the DAP, Hitler discovered he was good at public speaking. This was quickly recognised and he was put in charge of propaganda in 1920, after being discharged from the army.
What was the 25 point programme? The political manifesto Hitler and Drexler wrote in February 1920.
How did the DAP become the 'Nazis'? The words 'National Socialist' were added to the party's name, becoming NSDAP in 1920.
When did Hitler become leader of the NSDAP? July 1921
What did Hitler do firstly as leader? Adopted the title, 'Fuhrer,' developed a party symbol, the swastika, and introduced the raised arm salute
How were the SA formed? Protection squads were used to protect Nazi speakers from the violence that political meetings in Munich generated. These men were organised into the Gymnastic and Sports Section, which was developed into the Sturmabteilung (SA) in 1921.
What were the SA also known as? Brownshirts/Stormtroopers.
How did the Nazi party grow from 1920-23? from 1100 members in June 1920 to 55000 in November 1923
What was the political climate that caused Hitler to decide that it was the right one for a Putsch? 1923 - Germany failed to make second reparation payment and France and Belgium occupied Ruhr, taking control of coalfields. German workers were encouraged to go on strike with the gov. supplying their wages. The result was the onset of hyperinflation.
What was Hitler's influence for the Putsch? The seizure of power by Benito Mussolini in Italy in 1922.
When was the Munich Putsch? 8-9 November 1923
What happened during the Munich Putsch? (1) Hitler and 600 SA men burst into a public meeting held in a beer hall in Munich which was being adressed by Gustav von Kahr, the Bavarian Chief Minister . At gunpoint, von Kahr and the army chief and police chief agreed to help in the planned takeover.
What happened during the Munich Putsch? (2) von Karr, the army chief von Lossow and police chief von Seisser were allowed to leave the building. The last two changed their minds and organised troops and police to resist Hitler's planned armed march through Munich
What happened during the Munich Putsch (3) ? When a Nazi force of 2000 SA men marched through Munich the following morning. In the clash with police, sixteen Nazis and four policemen were killed. Together with his main supporter, General Ludendorff, Hitler was put on trial and the Nazi party banned
What happened during Hitler's trial? He was tried for treason in Feb. 1924 and the trial lasted almost one month. It gave him national publicity which he used to put forward his political views. Sympathetic judges allowed him to make long speeches which were published in newspapers.Fame.
What was the verdict of Hitler's trial? Ludendorff was let off, but on April 1st HiItler was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg prison, but he only served 9 months.
Who, other than Hitler, were the key figures involved in the Putsch? General Ludendorff, von Karr, von Lossow, von Seisser
What were the key ideas in Mein Kampf (my struggle)? Volksgemeinschaft - the creation of a people's community Social Darwinism - idea some races are superior Anti-semitism Lebensraum - obtain living space by creating a greater Germany in which all German-speaking people would be united into one nation
How did Hitler change the Nazi Party after his release? He created his own bodyguard, the Schutzstaffel (SS) -He introduced the Hitler Jugend in 1925 to attract younger members -Point 17 of the 25 point plan was amended to say that land would be confiscated if it was owned by a Jew.Began to attract all class
How did Nazi Party membership increase from 1925 to 1929? From 27,000 members in 1925 to 100,00 in 1928
What was the impact of Depression on Germany? Bankers withdrew loans made under the Dawes Plan. International trade contracted. By 1932 6 million were unemployed, meaning four out of every ten german workers was unemployed.
What do many historians view as the death of Weimar and the end of parliamentary democracy in Germany? The appointment of Heinrich Bruning of the Centre Party as Chancellor, who did not have a majority and had to rely on Article 48.
Why was Bruning nicknamed the Hunger Chancellor? He reduced spending; Germans experienced food shortages for the third time in 16 years; blamed for foreign investors withdrawing assets; banks collapsed in 1931
When did Bruning resign? May 1932
What was Josef Goebbels role in the 1932 elections? In charge of propaganda. Staged mass rallies, huge poster campaigns, used radio and cinema, Nazis owned 120 daily and weekly newspapers
What the results of Bruning's 1930 general election for the Nazis, in which he attempted to gain a majority? They won 107 seats and became the second biggests party after the Social Democrats. They had only had 12 seats in 1928.
How did HItler campaign during the 1932 presidential election? He used aeroplanes to speak at as many as five cities on the same day.
What sort of financial support did the Nazis receive during the elections? Industrialists such as Thyssen, Krupp and Bosch funded the Nazis. They feared a communist takeover and were concerned at the growth of trade union power. This allowed them to produce and distribute 600,000 copies of their economic in 1932.
What role did the SA play in Nazi electoral success? SA played a vital role in protecting Nazi speakers during election meetings and also in disrupting the meetings of their political rivals, especially the communists. 'Bully boy thugs' of the Party, engaged in street fights with the political opposition
What was the role of Hitler's appeal in increasing support for the Nazis? He was a gifted public speaker. He projected his image as being the messiah, the war hero and the ordinary man on the street. He created a philosophy all could comprehend.He kept his message simple, blaming scapegoats for Germany's problems. Charisma.
what were the results of the 1932 election? The nazis won the majority but Von Papen of the Centre party was appointed Chancellor and began to scheme in with Hindenburg.
What happened in September 1932? Von Papen dissolved the Reichstag. He believed the Nazis were losing momentum and if he held on they would disappear from the scene after another election.
What happened when von Papen resigned? Von Schleider succeeded him. he hoped to attain a majority in the Reichstag by forming a 'cross-front' where he would bring together different strands from left and right parties.
What did von Papen and Hitler decide? That Hitler should lead a Nazi-Nationalist government with von Papen as vice-Chancellor, who believed he would be able to control Hitler. They wrote a letter to Hindenburg and with the support of many he appointed Hitler as Chancellor.
Why did Hitler call a general election for March 5th 1933? There wer only two other Nazis in the cabinet: william Frick and Hermann Goering. Hitler's position was not strong and Nazi-Nationalist alliance did not have a majority. He hoped to increase support for Nazi party using violence and terror .
What was the Reichstag Fire? One week before the election on 27th February 1933 the Reichstag building was set on fire. The Nazis arrested Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist, and charged him with starting the fire.
How did Hitler use the Reichstag fire to his advantage? He argued communists were planning a revolution. -He persuaded Hindenburg to sign the 'Decree for the Protection of the people and the state."
What was the "Decree for the Protection of the People and the State"? This gave Hitler the power to suspend basic civil rights: restrict free speech, limit the freedom of the press and imprison enemies of the state without trial. Communist and socialist newspapers were banned.
What was the result of March election? The Nazis won 288 seats but failed to reach a majority, and so a coalition was formed with the Nationalist Party. Hitler was disappointed as he needed two-thirds of the seats to be able to change the constitution.
What happened on 23rd March 1933? The enabling bill was discussed in the Kroll Opera House (temporary home of the Reichstag.) Communists were banned from attending and the building was encircled with SA men who prevented known opponents from entering,but absentees were counted as present.
Why was the enabling bill passed? Communists not allowed to vote -SA intimidated members as they entered -promises to catholic centre party won their vote (e.g no interference in catholic schools) -absentees counted as present.
What was the Enabling Act? Passed on the 23rd March 1933, ended Weimar constitution, and regarded as 'foundation stone' of Third Reich. Gave Hitler full legislative power for 4 years with certain exceptions and allowed deviations from the constitution.
What was gleichschaltung? "forcing into line." Nazi policy of forced coordination, bringing all social, economic and political activites under state control.
How did the Nazis remove opposition to their regime? Banned trade unions and replaced with the German Labour Front Banned political parties; some had already disbanded voluntarily. Control of press;censorship. Control of states;abolished state assemblies and replaced them with Reich governors. Civil ser
When was the Night of the Long Knives? 30th June 1934
Why did the Night of Long Knives happen? The SA had played a key part in the growth of the Nazi. As a reward Ernst Rohm wantedto incorporate the army into the SA.Rohm wanted more gov. interference to help ordinary citizens.He began pushing for a social revolution to disband class structure
Why did the Night of Long Knives happen?(2) There was further tension for Hitler as the SS wanted to break away form the SA. Goering (head of the Gestapo) wanted to lead the armed forces and hence saw an opponent in Rohm.
What happened on the Night of the Long Knives? The SS carried out a purge codenamed "Operation Hummingbird.' Over 400 enemies of the state were arrested and shot by the SS. They included Rohm, former Chancellor von Schleider and von Karr.
What was the importance of the Night of the Long Knives? It eradicated would-be opponents to Hitler's rule. -It secured support from the army. -It relegated the SA to a minor role. -It provided Himmler with an opportunity to expand the SS.
Created by: sophiembt