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Ch. 23 questions

Acquired Immunity

What is an antigen? pe, usually a protein/polysaccharide--recognized by the body as foreign matter
What is an epitope? part of an Ag that actually binds to an Ab
What is the function of B Cells? Ehat is the specialized secreting progeny cell called? B cells produce antibodies--specialized secreting progeny cell is a plasma cell
How much time is required to produce Abs? seven to ten days
What other cell type besides specialized secreting progeny cell, results from B cell proliferation? what is its function? Memory B cells result from B cell proliferation--provide a quick response to future Ag exposure by producing Abs against that Ag
What does a Th cell cause to happen to many immune cells? causes proliferation of many immune cells
Where do B and T cells mature? B cells--bone marrow--T cells--thymus
What 3 cell types are required for an acquired immune response? antigen presenting cell (APC), T helper (Th), and a B or T cell that is stimulated to proliferate
What two cytokines are required for an acquired immune response, and what cells secete them? cytokines IL1(interleukin 1) and IL2 (interleukin 2)--required for acquired immune response--IL1 secreted by APC and IL2 secreted by the Th cell
What cells are not stimulated when a T-independent antigen (such as polysaccharide) is detected by the immune system? Th cells not stimulated when T-independent antigen detected by immune system--no memory cells formed
What is the purpose of a plasma cell? to produce antibodies that recognize and bind to specific antigens
How many Ag binding sites does IgG have? IgM? Secretory IgA (sIgA)? IgG--2, IgM--10, sIgA--4
Which Ab class has the longest half-life? IgG has the longest--21 days
which Ab classes opsonize Ags? IgG and IgM
How do Abs fix complement? Abs IgG and IgM fix complement--bind to pathogen--C3 binding site exposed--compliment begins cascade of protein binding
Why do we resis a second round of infection with 3 day measles virus? in 2nd infection--virions destroyed by B and T cells that recognize virus's Ags before becoming symptomatic
What is active immunity? induces immune system into protective state--introduces weakened or kills microbe before exposure to virulent microbes occur
What is passive immunity? introduces specific antibodies from one host to another recently exposed individual--no long term immunity--Abs slowly degraded
Small Ab:Ag complexes can give rise to what types of disease? arthritis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, other immune complex diseases
What is an allergen? substance that provokes allergic response by inducing IgE production
Why doesn't a person have an allergic response during the first exposure to an allergen? 1st exposure to allergen because 1st exposure results production of IgM--subsequent exposures--expression of Ab classes swithch to IgE--binds to mast cells and basophils--sensitizes them
What does humoral immunity refer to? Abs
Why is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction hard to the touch? it is tightly packed with immune cells
Hypersensitivity reaction Type I allergens bind to IgE Ab on mast cells and basophils that release histamine
Hypersensitivity reaction Type II Abs in the host bind to host Ags--fix complement-opsonize Ags so complement and phagocytes destroy Ags
Hypersensitivity reaction Type III small complexes of Ab:Ag form--filtered out in kidney or stick to host tissues where phagocytic cells attack whole complex tissue areas
Hypersensitvity reaction Type IV T cells--especially Tc cells--recruited to site by foreign Ags--Tc cells release toxic chemicals in the area
Bruton's disease pt makes no B cells
DiGeorge syndrome T cells do not form due to a failed thymus
Severe combined immunodeficiency virus kills Th cells that control nearly all other immune responses
Acquired immunodificiency virus kills the Th cells that control nearly all other immune responses
List 5 autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis
Created by: heatherlvn