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6th ScienceMSL

folded mountain, formed when layers are squeezed together and pushed upwards
fault-block mountain, formed when tension of tectonic plates causes large blocks of the Earth's crust to drop down relative to other blocks
deposition, The process in which material is laid down
transform boundary, A fault that lies directly along the boundary line
convergent boundary, When two plates smash into each other causing earthquake
divergent boundary, When two plates drift away from each other causing magma to rise
faults, A break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another
seismic waves, Waves of energy above Earths surface that go in different directions during an earthquake
epicenter, A spot above the focus on Earth's surface
volcano, A vent in Earths surface through which magma and gases are expelled
lava, magma that comes above the surface through faults and volcanoes
magma, melting rock underneath the surface
earthquakes, a violent shaking of the Earth's crust when tectonic plates move
focus point, the point under the surface of the Earth that is where the earthquake starts
stress, Pressure or tension put on a material object
primary waves, A seismic wave that causes particles of rock to move in a back- and- forth direction
secondary waves, A seismic wave that causes particals of rock to move in side-to-side directions
surface waves, a seismic wave that causes rock to move in side to side direction
seismograph, A tool that records vibrations in the ground and determines the location and strength of an earthquake
aftershock, weaker earthquakes that follow stronger earthquakes
tsunami, large waves that come on to shore when a earthquake happens in the sea; the earthquake shakes the sea violently
pyroclastic flow, when enormus amounts of hot ash, dust, and gases are released from a volconoe
continental drift, the theory that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
tectonic plate, the plates on Earth's surface that hold life on land they are constantly moving
Pangaea, when all of the tectonic plates were together in one big plate it was called this
theory of plate tectonics, that the tectonic plates are moving on top of the asthenoshpere
subduction, when one plate sinks or is pusshed under another
asthenospere, the second layer of the Earth; 250 km (not commonly used)
lithosphere, the top layer of the Earth; 15-300 km (not commonly used)
mantle, (the most commonly used layers) the third layer of the Earth; 2,900 km
crust, (the most commonly used layers) the top most layer of the Earth; 5-100 km
core, (the most commonly used layers) the center layer of the Earth; 3,430 km
inner core, the inner most layer; 1,230 km (not commonly used)
outer core the outer layer of the core; 2,200 km (not commonly used)
mineral, a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has definite chemical structure
rock, A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
element, A substance that cant be broken down into simpler pieces by chemical means
streak, The color of a powder of a rock
luster, The way a rock reflects light
cleavage, Splitting of a mineral along a smooth, flat surface
fracture, When a mineral breaks along either curved, or irregular surfaces
density, The ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
hardness, A measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
ore, a natural material whose concentration of economically valuable minerals is high enough for the material to be mined profitably
color, different sensations on the eye as a result of the way it reflects or emits light
infiltration, Entry of water into Earth's surface
soil horizon, A layer of soil that lies approximately parallel to the lands surface.
particle size, a introduced comparing dimensions of solid particles, liquid particles, and gaseous particles
soil profile, The diagram of a verticle section of soil depicting the horizons
pH, the amount of acidity that is in the soil you are testing
fertility, how much the soil is able to grow plants or the amount of nutriance
weathering, the wearing away of rocks by chemical or mechanical means
exfoliation, To seperate into rudely concentric layers or sheets, as certain rocks during weathering
abrasion, the grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles
chemical weathering, the process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions
mechanical weathering, the breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by physical means
humus, dark, organic material formed in soil from the decayed remains of plants and animals
deposition, the process in which material is laid down
erosion, the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
desertification, The proccess by which an area becomes a desert
rock cycle, the series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes
remote sensing The use of a camera, or a radar, to scan the Earth or another planet in space in order to collect data
Day & Night, the time required for Earth to rotate once on its axis
Seasons, A period of the year characterized by particular conditions of weather, and tempature
Rotation, the spin of a body on its axis
Revolution, the motion of a body that travels around another body in space; one complete trip along an orbit
Orbit, the path that a body follows as it travels around another body in space
ellipse, A plane curve that the sums of the distances of each point in its periphery from two fixed points are equal
Solstice, the point at which the sun is as far north or as far south of the equator as possible
Vernal Equinox It occurs in March, and marks the beginning of Spring
Autumnal Equinox It occurs in September, and marks the beginning of fall
solar eclipse, Occurs when the Moon gets between the Sun and Earth,and the moon casts a shadow over Earth
Lunar eclipse When the Earth falls between Sun, and Moon, the shadow of Earth casts on the Moon
Crescent Moon When 1- 49% of the Moon is seen of the part of the Moon unseen
Quarter Moon The first or second half of the Moon
Gibbous Moon When more than half of the Moon is seen, not a Full Moon
Full Moon When you see the Moon with none hidden
Waxing Moon When the Moon appears to get bigger
Waning Moon When the Moon appears to get smaller
High Tide The state of a tide when at its highest level
Low Tide The state of a tide when at its lowest level
Spring Tide the tide of increased range that occurs two times a month, at new and full moons
Neap Tide a tide of minimum range that occurs during the first and third quarters of the moon
gravitational pull, The attraction one has for another due to an invisible force of gravity
alignment, Arrangement in a straight line, or in correct relative positions
axis, An imaginary line about which a body rotates
tilt, A sloping position or movement
hemispheres, Half of the Earth in different sections like North, South, East, and West
solar system, A collection of planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaler bodies of comets, and asteriods
surface, The part of the Earth in which we live
atmosphere, The air in any particular place
composition, the chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock
gravity, The force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward the center of the earth
satellites, a natural or artificial body that revolves around a planet
sun, The star in which Earth orbits
planets, A celestical body moving in an ellipitial orbit around a star
moons, The natural satelite of the Eart, visible by reflected light from the sun
asteroids, a small, rocky object that orbits the sun, usually in a band between the orbits of mars and Jupiter
meteors, a bright streak of light that results when a meteoroid burns up in the earths atmosphere
comets, a small of ice, rock, and cosmic dust that follows an elliptical orbit around the sun and and that gives off gas and dust in the form of a tail as it passes close to the sun
dust, Tiny particles of Earth laying on the ground
gases, One of three staes of matter, composed with molcules with no fixed position
exploration, The action of traveling in or through an unfimiliar area in order to learn about it
astronaut, A person who is trained to travel in a spacecraft
solar radiation, A radiant energy emitted by the sun due to nuclear fusion reactions
probes, An exploratory action or expidition
International Space Station, A place where scientists can study and cunduct about space
Hubble Telescope, A telescope used to take pictures of space, which helps scientists learn about space
lander, A space vihicle used to land on the moon or another planet
probe, a vehicle that carries scientific instruments into space to collect scientific information
flybys, A flight of a spacecraft past a celestial body close enough to obtain scientific info
galaxies, a collection of stars, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
universe, The world of human experience
Milky Way, A broad band of light that stretches across the sky and is caused by the liight of a very great number of faint stars
light-year, the distance that light travels in one year; about 9.46 trillion kilometers
black holes An invisible region believed to exist in space having a very strong gravitational field and thought to be caused by a fallen star
Atoms, The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of the element and can exist either alone or in combo
elements, a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
matter, A substance of which a physical object is composed
particles, very tiny things that make up everything that interact with on another
pure substances, a chemical substance with a specific chemical composition
mass, a measure of the amount of matter in an object
weight, the amount of force you must use to lift an object
thermal energy, the kinetic energy of a substances atoms
solids, particals that move very little are aranged in a tight, regular pattern
liquids, particals that move past one another easily are fairly close but not in a certian pattern
gases, particals that move rapidly in no absolute pattern
volume vs. shape, Volume is the amount of space that an object takes up and shape is the form of an object.
density, the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
boiling point, the temperature where a liquid boils
freezing point, the temperature where a liquid frezzes
melting point, the temperature where a liquid melts
solubility, the maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a liquid at a specific temperature
solute, the substance being dissolved
solvent, the liquid substance the solute is dissolved into
independent, not depending on another
dependent, one thing that relies in another
physical properties vs. chemical properties Physical properties are things that make up something that moves and chemical properties tell about an experiment or some that would not be a living thing.
Thermal energy, the kinetic energy of a substances atoms
Conduction, The process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance
radiation, the tranfer of energy as electromagnetic waves
convection, the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
convection current, Convection is the movement of molecules within fluids
conservation, Preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation and wildlife
transfer, All waves tranfer energy by repeated vibrations
conductors, A material or an object that conducts heat, electricity, light, or sound
insulators, A substance that does not readily allow the passage of heat or sound.
temperature, a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
thermometer, An instrument for measuring and indicating temperature
equilibrium, A state of physical balance
thermal expansion, an increase in the size of a substance in response to an increase in the tempature of the substance
contraction, the proccess of becoming smaller
electromagnetic wave, a wave that consists of eletric and magnetic feilds that vibrate at right angles to eachother
absorption, in optics ,the transfer to light energy to particles in matter
refraction, the bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances in which the speedof the way differs
scattering, an interaction of light with matter that causes light to change it's energy ,direction of motion or both
transmission, the passing of light or other form of energy through matter
visible spectrum, the distribution of colors when light is dispersed by a prism
infrared light, wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves
ultraviolet light, radiation lying in the ultraviolet range; wave lengths shorter than light but longer than X-rays
x-rays, electromagneti radiation of short wavelength produced when high-speed electrons stike a solid target
gamma rays, penatrating electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength of X-rays
electromagnetic spectrum, the range of wavelengths or frequency over which electromagnetic radiation extends
electrical currents a rate or flow of an eletric charge
Waves, a periodic disturbance in a solid,liquid, or gas as enrgy is transmitted through a medium
wavelengths, the distance from any point on a wave to an identical point on the next wave
Sound vibrations that travel through the air or through another medium and can be haerd when they reach a person's or animal's ear
longitudinal waves a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate parellel to the direction of wave motion
amplitude the maximum distance that the particles of a waves medium vibrate from their rest position
rarefaction a decrease in density and pressure in a medium
compression stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
vibration, to move back and fourth especialy rhythmacly and rapidly
medium, a physical environment in which phenomea occur
vacuum, a space entirely devoid to matter
pitch, a measure of how high or how low a sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave
hertz, the SI unit of frequency equal to one cycle per minute
intensity, The quality of being intense: "the pain grew in intensity"
decibel, the most common unit used to measure loudness
amplification, addition of extra material or clarifying detail
acoustics, the proporties of a building that determine how sound is transmitted in it
echolocation, the process of using reflected sound waves to find objects; used by animals such as bats
sonar, the system of the detection of objects underwater and measuring waters depth
ultrasound, cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing
LIGHT the natural agent that stimulates sights and makes things visable
transverse waves a wave in which the particles of the medium move perpendicuarly to the direction the wave is traveling
trough the part of the wave withe the least magnitude; the smallest part of the wave
crest the part of the wave with the greatest maltitde ;the highest part of the wave
amplitude the maximum distance that the particles of a waves medium vibrate from the rest possition
frequency the number of waves produced in a given amount of time
prism, a solid geometric figures whose two end faces are simular
reflection, the bouncing back of a ray of light ,sound, and heat we the wave hots the surface that it dosn't go through
refraction, the bendingof a wave as the wave passes between two substancess in which the speed of the wave differs
optics, the scientific study of sight and the behavior of light
convex, Having an outline or surface curved like the exterior of a circle or sphere
concave, having a surface that curves inward
structures of the eye the multiple parts of the eye
cornea the transparent layer forming the front of the eye
iris a flat, colored membrain behind the cornea of the eye
lens transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye; its role is to focuses light on the retina
pupil The dark circular opening in the center of the iris of the eye
retina a layer on the back of the eye that is sensative to light and can triggers nerve impulses
optical nerve something that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain
cones a solid or hollow object that that has a roughly circular base to a point
rods a thin streight bar
seismic waves a wave of energy that travels through the earth and away from an earthquake in all directions
Created by: catiedivito