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Unit 1:Integumentary

Anatomy and Terminology

Epidermis Outermost layer; containing keratin
Stratum Corneum Most superficial layer of four layers of the epidermis called stratum.
Basal Layer Deepest region of epidermis
Stratum Germinativum or Stratum Basale The growth layer of the stratum.
Dermis The second layer of skin
Two layers of the dermis The Papillare layer and the Reticulare layer
The Integumentary System consists of: Fibrous connective tissue or skin appendages Blood vessels; Nerves; Hair; Nails; Glands
Subcutaneous Tissue or Hypodermis Not considered a layer of skin. Contains fat tissue and fibrous connective tissue. AKA: Superficial fascia Connects skin to underlying muscle
Nails Keratin plates covering dorsal surface of each finger and toe.
Lunula Semilunar or half-moon. White area at base of nail plate is growth area. Thickens and lengthens nail.
Eponychium Cuticle: Narrow band of epidermis at base and sides of nail.
Paronychium Soft tissue around nail border.
Sebaceous Glands Located in the dermal layer. Secrete sebum that lubricates skin/hair Influenced by sex hormones so they hypertrophy in adolescence & atrophy in old age.
Sudoriferous Glands Originates in dermis. AKA: Sweat Glands Extend up through epidermis opening as pores. Secrete mostly water & salts to cool body.
aden/o in relationship to a gland
adip/o fat
albin/o white
aut/o self
bi/o life
caus/o burning sensation
cauter/o burn
crypt/o hidden
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
derm/o, dermat/o skin
diaphor/o profuse sweating
eosin/o rosy
erythem/o red
erythr/o red
heter/o different
hidr/o sweat
ichthy/o dry/scaly
jaund/o yellow
kerat/o hard
leuk/o white
lip/o fat
lute/o yellow
melan/o black
myc/o fungus
necr/o death
onych/o nail
pachy/o thick
pht/o plant
pil/o hair
poli/o gray matter
py/o pus
rhytid/o wrinkle
rube/o red
seb/o sebum/oil
staphyl/o clusters
steat/o fat
strept/o twisted chain
squam/o flat/scalelike
trich/o hair
ungu/o nail
xanth/o yellow
xer/o dry
epi- on/upon
hyper- over
hypo- under
intra- within
para- beside
per- through
peri- surrounding
sub- under
-coccus spherical bacterium
-ectomy removal
-ia condition
-malacia softening
-opsy view of
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhea discharge
-tome an instrument to cut
-tomy to cut
bx biopsy
ca cancer
derm dermatology
I incision and drainage
subcu, subq, SC, SQ subcutaneous
PPD tuberculin skin test
Absence Without
Adipose Fatty
Albinism Lack of color pigment
Allograft Homograft, same species graft
Alopecia Condition in which hair falls out
Anhidrosis Deficiency of sweat
Autograft From patient's own body
Avulsion Ripping or tearing away of part either surgically or accidentally
Biopsy Removal of a small piece of living tissue for diagnostic purposes
Causalgia Burning pain
Collagen Protein substance of skin
Debridement Cleansing of or removal of dead tissue from a wound
Delayed flap Pedicle of skin with blood supply that is separated from origin over time
Dermabrasion Planing of skin by jeans of sander, brush, or sandpaper
Dermatologist Physician who treats conditions of skin
Dermatoplasty Surgical repair of skin
Electrocautery Cauterization by means of heated instrument
Epidermolysis Loosening of epidermis
Epidermomycosis Superficial fungal infection
Epithelium Surface covering of internal and external organs of body
Erythema Redness of skin
Esharotomy Surgical incision into necrotic (dead) tissue
Fissure Cleft or groove
Free full-thickness graft Graft of epidermis and dermis that is completely removed from donor area.
Furuncle Nodule in skin caused by Staphylococcus entering through hair follicle.
Hematoma A localized collection of blood, usually result of a break in a blood vessel.
Hemograft Allograft, same species graft
Ichthyosis Skin disorder characterized by scaling
Incise To cut into
Island pedicle flap Contains a single artery and vein that remains attached to origin temporarily or permanently
Leukoderma Depigmentation of skin
Leukoplakia White patch on mucous membrane
Lipocyte Fat cell
Lipoma Fatty tumor
Melanin Dark pigment of skin
Melanoma Tumor of epidermis, malignant and black in color
Mohs surgery or Mohs micrographic surgery Removal of skin cancer in layers by a surgeon who also acts as a pathologist during surgery.
Muscle flap Transfer of muscle from origin to recipient site
Neurovascular flap Contains artery, vein, and nerve
Pedicle Growth attached with a stem
Pilosebaceous Pertains to hair follicles and sebaceous glands
Sebaceous gland Secretes sebum
Seborrhea Excess sebum secretion
Sebum Oily substance
Split-thickness graft All epidermis and some of dermis
Steatoma Fat mass in sebaceous gland
Stratified Layered
Stratum (strata) Layer
Subungual Beneath the nail
Xanthoma tumor composed of cells containing lipid material, yellow in color.
Xenograft Different species graft
Xeroderma Dry, discolored, scaly skin
Macule Flat area of color change (mostly reddened) No elevation or depression Ex: flat moles, freckles
Papule Solid elevation. Less than 1.0 cm in diameter. May run together and form plaques. Ex: warts, lichen planus, elevated mole.
Nodule Solid elevation 1-2 cm in diameter. Extends deeper into dermis than papule. Ex: lipoma, erythema nodosum, enlarged lymph nodes.
Pustule elevated area. filled with purulent fluid. Ex: pimple, impetigo, abscess.
Tumor Solid mass. Uncontrolled, progressive growth of cells. Ex: hemangioma, neoplasm; lipoma.
Plaque Flat, elevated surface. Equal or greater than 1.0 cm. Ex: psoriasis, seborrheic keratosis.
Wheal Temporary localized elevation of skin. Results in transient edema in dermis. Ex: Insect bite, allergic reaction.
Vesicle Small blister. Less than 1 cm in diameter. Filled with serous fluid in epidermis. Ex: Herpes Zoster (shingles), varicella (chickenpox)
Bulla Large blister. Greater than 1.0 cm in diameter Ex: blister
Scales Flakes of cornified skin layer. Ex: dry skin
Crust Dried exudate on skin Ex: scab
Fissure Cracks in skin. Ex: Athlete's foot, openings in corners of mouth
Erosion Loss of epidermis. Does not extend into dermis. Example: blisters
Scar Excess collagen production following surgery or trauma. Ex: Healed surgical wound
Atrophy Loss of some portion of skin and appears translucent. Ex: Aged skin Not a lesion, but a physiologic response in aging process
Ulcer Area of destruction of entire epidermis. Ex: Missing tissue on heel, decubitus bedsore (pressure sore)
Pressure Ulcer, AKA: Decubitis Ulcer Result of pressure or force. Occludes blood flow, causing ischemia and tissue death. Develops over bony prominence.
Locations of pressure ulcers: Coccygeal (end of spine) Sacral (between hips) Heel Elbow Ischial (lower hip) Trochanteric (outer hip)
Pressure Sores: Staging or Classification System Stage 1: Erythema (redness) of skin Stage 2: Partial loss of skin (epidermis or dermis) Stage 3: Full thickness loss of skin (up to but not through fascia) Stage 4: Full thickness loss (extensive destruction & necrosis)
Keloids Sharply elevated, irregularly shaped scars that progressively enlarge. Due to excessive collagen in corneum during connective tissue repair. Result of tissue repair or trauma Familial tendency for formation
Cicatrix Normal scar left after wound healing
Atopic Dermatitis: Unknown etiology Exogenous (external) causes include: Irritant dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis Endogenous (internal) cause includes: Seborrheic dermatitis
Atopic Dermatitis results in activation of: Mast cells Eosinophils T lymphocytes Monocytes
Atopic Dermatitis is greater in those with family history of: Asthma Dry skin Eczema Allergic rhinitis
Atopic Dermatitis is common in: Children Infants
Atopic Dermatitis results in: Chronic inflammation Scratching Erythema Thickened, leathery skin (lichenification) Secondary Staphylococcus aureus infection
Atopic Dermatitis treatments include: Topical steroid Antibiotic for secondary infection Antihistamines
Created by: Laura Duncan