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MA 70 Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Endocrine System

acr/o extremities (CF)
adren/o adrenal glands (CF)
adrenal/o adrenal glands (CF)
andr/o male (CF)
anter/o front, anterior (CF)
calc/o calcium (CF)
crin/o secrete (CF)
estr/o female (CF)
glyc/o glycos/o gluc/o sugar (CFs)
gonad/o sex glands (CF)
home/o sameness (CF)
kal/i potassium (CF)
natr/o sodium (CF)
neur/o nerves
ophthalm/o eye (CF)
pancreat/o pancreas (CF)
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland (CF)
pineal/o pineal gland (CF)
pituitar/o pituitary gland (CF)
poster/o back, posterior (CF)
thym/o thymus gland (CF)
thyr/o thyroid gland (CF)
thyroid/o thyroid gland (CF)
toxic/o poison (CF)
-crine to secrete (Suffix)
-dipsia thirst (S)
-emia blood condition (S)
-logist one who studies (S)
-megaly enlarged (S)
-osis abnormal condition (s)
-pathy disease (S)
-tome instrument for cutting (S)
-tomy incision, to cut into (S)
-prandial relating to a meal (S)
-trophy development, nourishment (S)
-tropin stimulate (S)
dys- poor; bad; difficult (P)
hyper- above; in excess (P)
hypo- below; deficient (P)
ex- out from (P)
para- at; beside; along side; beyond (P)
poly- many (P)
super- above; more than normal (P)
supra- above; More than normal (P)
acromegaly enlarged extremities
adenoma gland tumor
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary gland
adrenal pertaining to adrenal glands
adrenomegaly enlarged adrenal gland
adrenopathy adrenal gland disease
adrenalectomy removal of one or both of the adrenal glands
adrenalitis inflammation of adrenal gland
anteroposterior from the front towards the back
anterior Front
hypercalcemia excessive calcium in blood
hypocalcemia low calcium in blood
endocrinologist specialist in endocrine system
endocrinopathy endocrine system disease
glucogenesis production of glucose (glycogen conversion)
glycogen stored carbohydrate
glycogenesis production of glycogen
glucometer instrument to measure sugar levels in blood
hyperglycemia excessive sugar in blood
hypoglycemia low sugar in blood
hyperkalemia excessive potassium in blood
hyponatremia low sodium in blood
neurohypophysis posterior pituitary gland
exophthalmos exophthalmic protruding eyes
pancreatic pertaining to pancreas
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
pancreatolith calculus build up in the pancreas
pancreatolithiasis condition of many stones (calculi) in the pancreas
pancreatopathy disease of the pancreas
parathyroidal pertaining to parathyroid gland
parathyroidectomy surgical removal of the parathyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism state of excessive parathyroid
hypoparathyroidism state of insufficient parathyroid
pituitary pertaining to pituitary gland
hypopituitarism state of insufficient pituitary
hyperpituitarism state of excessive pituitary
polyphagia excessive eating
posterior behind; back
posteroanterior pertaining to from back towards the front
posterosuperior in back and above
posteroinferior in back and below
posterolateral in back and towards the side
thymic pertaining to thymus gland
thymectomy removal of thymus
thymitis thymus inflammation
thymoma thymus tumor
thymolysis destruction of the thymus gland
thyromegaly enlarged thyroid
thyropathy disease of the thyroid
thyrotomy incision of the thyroid
thyroidal pertaining to thyroid gland
thyroidectomy removal of thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism state of excessive thyroid
hypothyroidism state of insufficient thyroid
toxicologist one who studies poisons in the environment and body
polydipsia excessive thirst
hypertrophy excessive growth
polyuria condition of too much urine
glycosuria sugar in the urine
endocrinology branch of medicine involving diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases of endocrine glands
endocrinologist specialist in the endocrine system
exophthalmos condition in which eyeballs protrude, such as in Graves’ disease; generally caused by overproduction of thyroid hormone
gynecomastia development of breast tissue in males; may be symptom of adrenal feminization
hirsutism condition of having excessive amount of hair; generally used to describe females who have adult male pattern of hair growth; can be result of hormonal imbalance
hypersecretion excessive hormone production by endocrine gland
hyposecretion deficient hormone production by endocrine gland
obesity having abnormal amount of fat in body
syndrome group of symptoms and signs that give a clinical picture of disease or condition
Addison’s disease results from deficiency in adrenocortical hormones; increased pigmentation of skin, generalized weakness, and weight loss
adrenal feminization development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in male; result of increased estrogen secretion by adrenal cortex
adrenal virilism development of male secondary sexual characteristics (such as deeper voice and facial hair) in female; result of increased androgen secretion by adrenal cortex
diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism; results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria; two distinct forms of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1, and non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2
insulin-dependent diabetes also called type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) develops early in life when pancreas stops insulin production; patient must take daily insulin injections
non–insulin-dependent diabetes also called type 2 diabetes mellitus Used to be typical that diabetes mellitus developed later in life. Pancreas produces normal to high levels of insulin but cells fail to respond to it; patients may take oral hypoglycemics to improve insulin function, may eventually have to take insulin
tetany tetany nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia; hypoparathyroidism is one cause
Recklinghausen disease excessive production of parathyroid hormone resulting in degeneration of bones
acromegaly chronic disease of adults; results in elongation and enlargement of bones of head and extremities; can also be mood changes; due to excessive amount of growth hormone in adult
diabetes insipidus (DI) disorder caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by posterior lobe of pituitary gland; may be polyuria and polydipsia
dwarfism condition of being abnormally short in height; may be result of hereditary condition or lack of growth hormone
gigantism excessive development of body due to overproduction of growth hormone by pituitary gland in child or teenager
panhypopituitarism deficiency in all hormones secreted by pituitary gland; often recognized because of problems with glands regulated by pituitary— adrenal cortex, thyroid, ovaries, and testes
cretinism congenital condition in which lack of thyroid hormones; results in arrested physical and mental development
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland, usually due to lack of iodine in the diet
Graves’ disease results in overactivity of thyroid gland; can cause crisis situation; symptoms include exophthalmos and goiter; type of hyperthyroidism
Hashimoto’s disease chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis; results in hyposecretion of thyroid hormones
myxedema condition resulting from hyposecretion of thyroid gland in adult; symptoms can include anemia, slow speech, swollen facial features, edematous skin, drowsiness, and mental lethargy
thyrotoxicosis condition resulting from marked overproduction of thyroid gland; symptoms include rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, and weight loss
adenocarcinoma cancerous tumor in gland that is capable of producing hormones secreted by gland; one cause of hypersecretion pathologies
thyroid echography ultrasound examination of thyroid that can assist in distinguishing thyroid nodule from cyst
thyroid scan test in which radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in thyroid gland; gland can then be visualized with scanning device to detect pathology such as tumors
chemical thyroidectomy dose of radioactive iodine is given to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery
hormone replacement therapy artificial replacement of hormones in patients with hyposecretion disorders; may be oral pills, injections, or adhesive skin patches
laparoscopic adrenalectomy removal of adrenal gland through small incision in abdomen and using endoscopic instruments
ADH antidiuretic hormone
AP anteroposterior
DI diabetes insipidus
DM diabetes mellitus
FBS fasting blood sugar
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
GTT glucose tolerance test
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
LH luteinizing hormone
PA posteroanterior
PRL prolactin
PTH parathyroid hormone
T3 triiodothyronine
T4 thyroxine
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
Created by: leschnei