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Legal Psyc 8

Interrogations and Confessions

Unfortunately the way in which confession evidence is obtained has become increasingly controversial in recent years. Of the first 143 DNA exonerations in the US, ___% had confessed at the crime. 20%
Police conduct and interrogation to get more ___________? and to obtain a full or partial ___________? There is a confession "__________" among police where 80% of police say that confession is the aim of the interrogation. True or false? information, confession, culture, true
There are 5 reasons why police focus on confessions. What are these? Police pressured to solve crimes quickly, Suspects more likely to plead guilty & so wont go to court, saving money&time, confessions have huge impact on jurors, confessions seen as mark of prowess, assume suspects guilty-forget they are just 'suspects'
Inbau, Reid & Buckley (1986) came up with 9 step procedure designed to elicit confessions (designs to overcome resistance of reluctant suspects) Write these out .....
The manual says that the innocent suspect will supposedly give c___________ answers because he has no fear of being trapped, and that they sit ______, but not rigid in front of the interrogator concise, upright
The guilty suspect will supposedly fail to make direct ___ contact, be overly p_________. eye, polite
Is there any support for these ideas of what an innocent and guilty person supposedly do? No
With the confessions table what two things do we not want? False Positive and False negative
False positive is when the person is or is not guilty? and make or dont make a confession? Not guilty, confession
False negative is when the person is or is not guilty? and make or dont make a confessions? Guilty and make no confession
What is "hit" Guilty and make confession
What is true negative? Not guilty and no confession
A confession may be true even it it is coerced and later retracted. So they may have confessed because of the really ____ interview but planned to _______________ it after bad, retract
There are three types of false confessions, What are these? Voluntary False Confessions, Coerced Compliant Confessions, Coerced Internalized Confessions
Which type of false confession is this? "Self-incriminating statement that is obtained after intense interrogation pressures. A confession that’s been elicited through inappropriate tactics" Coerced Compliant Confessions
Which type of false confession is this? "• Self-incriminating statement that is offered without external pressure from the police. People who front up to police station and commit to crime they did not do" Voluntary False Confessions
Type of false confession? "An innocent person subjected to a coercive interrogation actually comes to believe that he or she is guilty. So this is not only coerced but the person also internalizes it an actually comes to believe that he or she is guilty Coerced Internalized Confessions
What type of confession is this an example of? "(famous people) Charles Lindbergh’s baby, Fathers son was kidnapped from home and killed. 200 people came forward and confessed to that killing" Voluntary False confessions
Type of confession? "Confesses to escape an aversive interrogation or to gain promised reward such as getting to go home or punishment – not being feed. So some people confess becos the just want to be let out of the room, not because they did the crime" Coersed compliant confessions
What type of confession is this an example of? Tom Sawyer case. Women found murdered. Tom Sawyer lived near by. He was extremely socially active. He was also an alcoholic. Convinced him that he did this in an alcohol blackout. Coerced Internalized Confessions
Which type fo confessions is where the suspect knows that they are innocent? Coerced compliant confessions
Which type of confession involves this "These people normally have some sort of vulnerable factor and another key ingredient – the presentation of false evidence “your DNA matches the DNA on murdered person” – allowed to do this overseas" Coerced internalized confession
Why do people give voluntary false confessions? (there are three reasons) Protection of a friend or relative, mental illness and need for fame, acceptance, recognition or self-punishment
Experiment 1 investigated the "id know a false confession if i came across one" from police and compared police with students and found? Write this out Overall accuracy was not high only 54%, subjects more accurate when faced with audiotapes as opposed to video recordings, police were more confident than students, students more accurate than police. Police showed a _________ guilt bias.
What does a positive guilt bias mean? They are a lot more likely to assume that someone was guilty
In experiment 2 participants were told that half of the confessions were true and half were false. Positive guilt bias was eliminated but this did not increase ac__________ or reduce c____________ accuracy, confidence
Write out study by Kassin & Kiechal... ....
What were the two variables in the alt key study? High or low perceived vulnerability (fast paced, slow paced), presence of a "witness"
Write out Russano et al study ....
Diagnosticity = ? Ratio of true confessions: false confessions
Write out the recommendations .....
Created by: alicemcc33