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Specialized cell Cell that is uniquely suited to performing a particular function
Epithelial tissue Includes glands and tissues that cover interior and exterior body surfaces
Connective tissue Tissue that provides support for the body and connects its parts
Nervous tissue Tissue that transmits nerve impulses throughout the body
Muscle tissue Tissue that enables the body to move
Homeostasis The process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in external environments and is maintained by feedback loops
Feedback inhibition The process by which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus
Neuron Cells that transmit impulses
Cell body The largest part of a typical neuron
Dendrite Short, branched extensions that carry impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body
Axon The long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
Myelin sheath Insulating membrane surrounding the axon in some neurons
Resting potential The electrical charge across the cell membrane of a neuron in its resting state
Action potential The reversal of charges, from negative to positive; nerve impulse
Threshold The minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron
Synapse The location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
Neurotransmitters Chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
Meninges Three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped
Cerebrospinal fluid Fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord and acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system
Cerebrum The largest and most prominent region of the human brain
Cerebellum The second largest region of the brain
Brain stem Connects the brain and spinal cord
Thalamus Receives messages from all of the sensory receptors throughout the body and then relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum
Hypothalamus The control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature
Reflex A quick, automatic response to a stimulus
Reflex Arc The pathway that an impulse travels from your foot back to your leg
Hormone Chemicals release in one part of the body that travel through the bloodstream and affect the activities of cells in other parts of the body
Target cell Cells that have receptors for a particular hormone
Exocrine gland Glands that release their secretions, through tubelike structures called ducts, directly to the organs that use them
Endocrine gland Glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the bloodstream
Prostaglandin Hormonelike fatty acid produced by a wide range of cells; generally affects only nearby cells and tissues
Disease Any change that disrupts the normal functions of the body
Pathogen Disease-causing agent
Germ theory of disease Idea that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, or germs
Koch's postulates Rules that are used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
Vector Animals that carry pathogens from person to person
Antibiotic Compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal hosts
Immunity Ability of the body to resist a specific pathogen
Inflammatory response A nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection
Fever Elevated body temperature
Interferon Proteins that help other cells resist viral infections
Immune response The body's specific defenses that attack a disease-causing agent
Antigen Substance that triggers an immune response
Humoral immunity Immunity against antigens and pathogens in the body fluids
Cell-mediated immunity Immunity against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells
Antibodies Proteins that recognize and bind to antigens
Active immunity The type of immunity produced by the body's reaction to a vaccine
Passive immunity Short-term immunity caused when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body
Allergy The most common overreactions of the immune system to antigens
Histamine Chemicals that the activated mast cells realease
Created by: alexisshaha