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Cell Adhesion

Medical Cell Biology

Cell Adhesion The binding of a cell to a surface, extracellular matrix or another cell using adhesion molecules
Cell Adhesion Molecules Selectins, Integrins, and Cadherins
Why is cell adhesion important? Cell adhesion is important for compartmentalization, tissue integrity, cell-cell communication, and morphogenesis
Cell adhesion should not occur in what surface? APICAL SURFACE!
Cadherins Epithelial cell's CAM. Needed for embryonic development. Cell-cell adhesion. Calcium dependent. Binds to cantenins in cytoplasm.
B-catenin Function in signaling (WNT)
A-catenin Bind to actin filament
Disruption of B-catenin and E-cadherin consequence? Neoplasia of breast and colon cancer
Immunoglobulin Superfamily Homophillic and heterophillic binding. Cell-cell and cell-cell-ECM. Epithelial cells-Nectin. Endothelial cells-ICAM and VCAM, which binds to integrins. Bind to cytoskeleton (actin, a-actinin, spectrin). Required disulfide bonds.
Afidin Acts like b-catenin, it is a cytoplasmic binding protein for the immunoglobulin superfamily.
Selectins Heterophilic binding. Cell-cell adhesion. Bind to carbohydrate on opposite cell. Calcium dependent. Cytoplasmic domain interact with actin cytoskeleton. Need for initiating adhesion of leukocytes and platelets to endothelial cells during inflamation.
L-selectins Needed for tethering and rolling "Homing receptor"
Integrins Cell-Cell, Cell-ECM adhesion. Low affinity state stabilized by Calcium = does not bind to ligand = Inactive. High affinity state Mn2+ and Mg2+, binds ligand = Active
LAD (leukocyte adhesion deficiency) Mutations in integrins, can't make pus = Death
Intracellular Junctions Tight Junction (zonula occludens), Adherens jucntion (zonula adherens), Desmosomes, Gap Junction, Hemidesmosome, Focal contact.
Tight Junction (Zonula Occludens) Separates apical from intracellular space and basal surface, Contact b/w TM proteins "membrane kisses" -- claudin and occludin, Forms seal b/w adjacent epithelial cells, Regulate selective diffusion of hydrophobic molecules, Maintain cell polarity
ZO proteins link TM proteins to actin cytoskeleton
Adherens Junction (Zonula adherens) Located underneath tight junction, require e-cadherins (cell-cell adhesion), Ca+ dependent, associated with nectin and a-actinin, stabilized by desmosomes, help resist mechanical stress and maintain tissue integrity
Desmosome (macula adherens) Cell-cell communication, found in stratified squamous epithelial of skin, need for closure of wound
Pemphigus Vulgaris Autoimmune disorder of skin and mouth. Acquire antibodies agains DESMOGLEIN (desmosomal cadherins), non healing BLISTERS and sores
GAP Junction (NEXUS) Hydrophilic channel allow direct exchange of small metabolites and signaling molecules b/w cells, Cell-Cell communication, 1kDA can pass, formed by 2 Connexons, contains protein called CONNEXIN
Oculodentodigital Dysplasia Mutations in gene coding for CONNEXINS, Gap junction less abundant, Affect EYES, TEETH, HAND and FEET.
Hemidesmosomes Integrins (a6B4) form major adhesion molecule. Integrins interact with anchoring filaments (Laminin-5) and then interact with anchoring fibrils (Col VII). Absence leads dermoepidermal separation
Epidermolysis Bullosa Inherited, BLISTERING disorder of skin or mucosa, Mutations in genes coding for HEMIDESMOSOMAL PROTEINS (LAMININ 5)
Bullous Pemphigoid Autoimmune, blistering skin disease- causes separation b/w cell-ECM layer
Focal Contact Links actin cytoskeleton to ECM components. Cell-ECM communication. Functions to mediate dynamic attachment b/w cell and substratum. Important cell migration, wound healing, signal detection and transduction)
Leukocyte Adhesion, Extravasation, and Migration leukocyte tethers (SELECTIN) -- binds to endothelium (INTEGRINS-ICAM) -- Extravasation from blood vessel (JAM, PECAM)--Migrates to source of injury (INTEGRINS)
Platelet Activation is enhanced by which protein TXA2
Activated platelet secretes what protein vWF -- Adhesion occur -- collagen activate platelet when leak in blood vessels
ERK (Extracellular signal regulated kinases) Helps regulate proliferation of cells attachment to substratum
Anoikis Regulate cells to release from substratum and undergo apoptosis
Bernard-Soulier Syndrome Heriditary bleeding disorder, platelet disorder, defect in non-integrins adhesion complex, Giant platelets, LOW PLATELET COUNT (thrombocytopenia)
Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia Heriditary bleeding disorder, platelet disorder, Defect in integrin adhesion receptor, poor clot retraction, NORMAL PLATELET COUNT
Created by: jsabangan