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IndustrialRevolution

Miss Kenton-STHS: Terms & Concepts of the Industrial Revolution

Term/ConceptDefinition/Explanation
How did the Agrarian Revolution spark the Industrial Revolution? Improvements in the quantity & quality of farm products led to healthier, longer-living people. Forced urbanization resulted from the lack of available farming jobs in the rural villages. The population growth of the cities= a ready & willing workforce.
Why was Britain in the lead? plentiful resources, ready workforce, prosperous economy, availability of capital & demand, stable government
Changes in the Textile Industry Cottage Industry (hand produced)-->Factory Industry (mass production); cottages were to small to house the machinery, so factories led to greater production, lower costs, more consumers, higher profits, and high demand.
Benefits of Industrialization reformers got laws passed to improve conditions; labor unions won right to bargain w/ employers; working-class men gained right to vote; creation of more jobs; wages rose; families could afford entertainment; lower transportation cost=more travel
Challenges of Industrialization air, noise, & environmental pollution; foul, over-crowded tenement slums; no sanitation system/running water; spread of diseases; frustration led to violence; long hours, low pay; no safety devices=injuries/death; women/child labor; lack of education
James Watt improved the steam engine; powered the revolution (machinery & later locomotives and steamships)
Eli Whitney inventor of the cotton gin; separated the seed from the cotton; more efficient method that led to increased production of cotton that fueled the textile industry
Karl Marx Communism/Marxism: said there would be an inevitable struggle between social class ("haves vs. have-nots") in which the working class would rise up and take over creating a classless society
Socialism where the people rather than private individuals would own & operate the means of production (farms, factories, railways, & other businesses)
Proletariat working class
What changes occurred as the Industrial Revolution took hold? Technological-mechanization, use of energy, & transportation; Rapid urbanization & creation of new middle class & working class that lived & worked in wretched conditions; development of laissez-faire capitalism, utilitarianism, socialism, & communism.
Tenements multistory buildings divided into apartments that had no running water, no sewage or sanitation systems, and were overcrowded with the struggling poor.
Labor Union workers' organizations that were illegal at this time; wished to initiate reforms, but had no political power yet; frustration sometimes led to violence
entrepreneur a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business
Why were coal & iron needed? Coal=needed to smelt iron and to power steam engines; Iron=needed for better farming tools, factory machinery, and railways
How does the Industrial Revolution lead to empire building? The global balance of power will shift after the revolution because industrialized nations dominated the rest of the world.
Capital money used to start up businesses
Thomas Malthus he thought the population would grow faster than the food supply; opposed charity and vaccinations to help lower the population; proven wrong
Jeremy Bentham he promoted utilitarianism or the idea that the goal of society should be the greatest happiness for the greatest number of citizens
Socialism radical solution; people as a whole would own and operate farms, factories, & railways; everyone would share the profits and property was commonly owned
Robert Owen his idea of a utopian society was to set up communitites that were ideal. but they proved very unrealistic
Created by: dkenton on 2008-03-13



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