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Dnsr notes 19

The Hidden Web

All organisms contain fixed proportions of what 6 elements? Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur (CHNOPS)
What 3 things make up the earth's ecosystem? Producers, consumers, and decomposers
Producers? Harness energy from the sun and secondary consumers that eat primary consumers.
Consumers : includes primary consumers that eat producers and secondary consumers that eat primary consumers.
Decomposers Organisms that recycle chemicals for the next generation of life (some insects, bacteria, fungi, mostly soil inhabitants)
What do producers use to convert sunlight into energy? Photosynthesis
Is every species independently living? No, Every species is interdependent with many others.
What are the dominant plants on earth today? Angiosperms (flowering plants)
What helps an angiosperm reproduce? Specific insects, birds, and mammals.
What is symbiosis? Two or more species live in close physical proximity for extended periods.
Mycorrhizae? Plant roots that are accompanies by stringy bacteria, seen as swelling in roots (fat roots)
Where does nitrogen come from? It is derived from the decomposition of previous generations of plants and animals.
What organism uses nitrogen? Plants
Explain the process of converting nitrogen to energy. The bacterial side takes up nitrogen from the soil and transforms it into amino acids that can be used by the plant for growth. The bacteria in turn receive nourishment from the plant roots.
What do fungal mycorrhizae absorb and what does this allow the plant to do? Phosphorus, this enables plants to deal with harsh environmental conditions.
When period did grass appear? Mesozoic
What helps angiosperms disperse seeds? Birds and animals that can poop.
What part of the plant did herbivores eat? ALL OF IT.
What do plants develop to protect themselves from predators? they create bark and fibrous leaves that are difficult to digest. They also develop poison to ward off predators.
Examples of plants that develop poisons against insects and herbivores nicotine in tobacco and caffeine in coffee
What do conifers do as defense against insects? They have microscopic fungi living inside their needles which derive sugars and starch from the plant. The fungi are short-lived and keep evolving to ward off insects.
What strategies do the consumers evolve to counter this? Insects and vertebrates develop millions of bacteria within their guts. The microbes break the food down and absorb the nutrients.
When did plants start to develop defenses? Mesozoic
How do we know what Mesozoic bugs ate? We have fossilized plants showing their specialized bites. These leaves also show us alternative strategies bugs developed to eat plants.
What matter does soil contain? Organic material, minerals, gas, and nutrients.
What produces chemicals to break down rocks? Bacteria
What are the horizons called that make up soil? O, A, B, and C.
Describe the O horizon Composed mostly of organic materials, including leaves and stems at the top and humus below.
escribe the A horizion Composed of minerals and humus and is full of biological activity.
B horizon Composed of fine clays with some living and organic matter but much less than in the overlying A horizon.
C horizon Composed of fragmented rock debris, with very little organic matter.
What dictates what types of life can live in a given area? Soil and climate
What is the cycle of an ecosystem? Sun  plants  primary consumers  secondary consumers  decomposers
Is there greater mass of life under or above the surface of soil. Under
What are some organisms that live in the soil? Millipedes, worms, termites, fungi, and bacteria
What do those organisms do? They consume dead parts of plants and animals and each other and decompose this into material into a form that can be used by the next generations of plants.
What’s another word for dino poop? Copralite
What evidence have copralites preserved? The burrowing tracks of dung beetles and shows that insects lived many more years previous to what we had thought.
What does bacteria do to fossils? Cause or increase the precipitation of minerals that cause the preservation of organic tissues.
Created by: Chelseagirl2508